LANGUAGE AND STYLISTIC DEVICES - The Samaritan Study Guide

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Act I Scene I - The Failed Award

  1. Imagery
    1. Hyperbole/ Exaggeration/ Overstatement
      • Montano too tells Alvita what she sees in future, “the way your nose was running as though you had a drum of fluids in the middle of your head (P. 6).”
      • Montano tells Alvita “you had a fertile imagination (P. 8).”
      • Nicole tells the students “What an overheated imagination (P. 9).”
      • Mossi says, “I would especially be delighted if the medicine for regenerating my body cells was discovered today. That would enable me live for four hundred and twenty-two more years (P. 14 and 15).”
      • Mossi shares, “I accidentally swallowed a whole toothpick (P.16).”
      • Nicole’s movement is exaggerated with, “Her sharp footsteps can be heard reverberating in the corridor like castanets (P. 18)”.
    2. Vivid description
      • The scene is introduced with an in-depth description of the setting. We are told Chairs and tables are arranged in three rows with two passageways, one on either side of the middle row (P. 1).”
      • Ms. Narine is described as, “She is motherly, tall plump lady in her late fifties (P. 3)”.
      • Nicole is portrayed as, “She is dressed in her trade mark style comprising flowery banarasi silk sari and a headscarf (P. 3)”
      • Further description shows her as, “She is a young, tall, light skinned lady of medium build, a renowned beauty and an uncomprising moralist (P. 3).”
      • Mayor is a tall heavy man, called Mossi (P. 2).
      • Nicole is described as “She is spotting a wavy side pony-tail hairstyle and is smartly dressed in a black skirt and a white blouse (P. 3-4)”.
    3. Personification
      • Montano tells Alvita, “Your nose was running (P. 6).”
      • Montano informs Alvita, “You hard a fertile imagination (P. 8).”
      • Basdeo says “It will be a delicious new dawn in our islands (P. 19).”
    4. Simile
      • You just send a text message on the App and it spreads like a wild bushfire (P. 16).
      • Her sharp footsteps can be heard reverberating in the corridor like castanets (P. 18).
      • People slaughtered like chicken (P. 7).
    5. Metaphor
      • Montano tells Alvita, “You hard a fertile imagination (P. 8).”
    6. Symbolism
      • Montano says we better discuss which side of the fence that bird will fly- when it eventually decides to fly (P. 9).The bird represents the Municipal leaders who have to make the decision for the state and citizens.
  2. Euphemism
    • Montano tells Alvita, “Your nose was running (P. 6).”
  3. Sarcasm
    • Mossi sarcastically says he would especially be delighted by the medicine for regenerating his body cells if it was discovered today. That would enable him to live for four hundred and twenty two more years (P. 14).
    • Mossi sarcastically refers to the Samaritan App as an incredible innovation that they have to discuss the way forward of it after students leave, only to tell them that he will not continue with this ‘Thing.’(P. 15).
    • Ramdaye says they might spread another rumor on the platform and Mossi may swallow another toothpick (P.16).
    • With a sarcastic grin, Mossi comments on Basdeo’s delicious smell of the new dawn as, “It is the smell most likely of berries or corn on cobs, they are delicacies for occupants (P. 19).”
  4. Allusion
    • Alvita says they named The Samaritan after the parable of the Good Samaritan narrated in the good book (P. 13).
  5. Rhetorical Questions
    • Montano asks Alvita the possibility of better change, “What with all these criminal gangs in the Municipality? (P. 8).
    • Alvita asks Montano, “Haven’t you read about decision-making algorithm (P. 8).”
    • Alvita asks, “What is so special about developing an artificial police officer or judge (P. 8).
  6. Play within a play
    • Alvita and Montano showcase the future and they imagine of a world of despair with a degraded environment, malnourishment, crime, and poverty contrasted with a world where technology brings hope in the judicial sector and human life span too (P. 4- 13).
  7. Satire
    • The Mayor and his leaders reject the best incredible project of The Samaritan aimed to change the Municipality and the situation of the citizens. Within few minutes Mossi releases students and tells the principal and students that they will not proceed with the rewarding.
    • The play within a play is a satire of what may happen in future.
    • Montano tells Alvita that their country has been producing graduates every year that the jobs it is able to create (P. 5).
  8. Irony
    • It is ironical that Mossi, the Mayor says he had an express mandate given to him by the people of Maracas to protect their public interest, yet he has an intention of blocking the advancement of the Samaritan App innovation that could save them (P. 18).
  9. Elipsis
    • Pirro says, “Pardon me your worship, but they cannot overrule the minster… (P.18).
    • Mossi stammers when talking to Nicole that she should figure a way…. And further says that in it that you need to attend to … get when I mean? (P. 17).

Act I Scene II-The Rift

  1. Imagery
    1. Vivid Description
      • A spacious rectangular-shaped room with a large pine oval table with high back executive office chairs (P. 20).
    2. Simile
      • I am as broke as a church mouse (P. 31).
    3. Hyperbole
      • Mossi tells Ted and Seymour, “I can make you see real smoke and can strike harder than thunder (P. 35)”
  2. Elipsis
    • Mossi says, “Look you fools, the situation is very bad and we cannot….(P. 35).
  3. Idiomatic expression
    • Over my dead body (P. 33).
  4. Rhetorical Questions
    • Mossi asks Ted and Seymour, “How can you justify your current financial status?  (P. 35).”
    • He further asks them, “Who doesn’t know you have stolen the money? (P.  35).”
  5. Irony
    • It is ironical that Jaden is a judge who should be maintaining law and order , yet when he meets Mossi, Ted, and Seymour  he argues, “….what matters is not what you do, but how you do it (P. 29).”
    • He goes further stating that one can fly into forbidden territory and still get away with it, provided it’s done below the radar (P. 29).
    • This clearly shows that he is ready to justify all injustice in maracas municipality. Furthermore, he believes in corruption. He thinks that  the only way to pull down the information from the App is by use of money to influence their pursuers (P. 31).

Act I Scene III - Strategies

  1. Imagery
    1. Metaphor
      • Bembe also talks about Basdeo as, “There porcupine went straight to the bank (P. 39).”
      • Bembe refers to Ramdaye as, “That dinosaur called Ramdaye (P. 42).”
    2. Hyperbole
      • Bembe tells Mossi, “You lost a tooth during a meeting in the boardroom (P. 40).”
      • Mossi refers to Basdeo as a greedy person hence he says, “The porcupine can do anything to acquire power even if it is selling her own mother (P.40)”
  2. Idiomatic Expressions
    • Harvester tells Mossi that Hon Basdeo should get, a dose of his own medicine (P. 48).
    • Mossi says they should, “Put our best foot forward (P. 48).”
  3. Irony
    • It is ironical that all the leaders here are fighting and focusing on protecting their best interest when they should be safeguarding the safety of the citizens and the council.
    • Mossi says he is protecting their public interest and should put their best food forward when they are actually ruining it (P. 48).
    • Mossi refers to Nicole as an enemy of the progress of the Municipality when ironically she is focusing to help the society (P. 46-47).
  4. Saying
    • Mossi says that, “We will have killed two birds with one stone (P. 47)”

Act II Scene I - Fear

  1. Imagery
    1. Vivid Description
      • The stage directions at the beginning of the scene are quite detailed. They indicate Nicole as sitting in her spacious room that contained an oak table. The table has three drawers on each side of her seat. The table has two office chairs that face each other on the front of it. The table is arranged quite neatly and books are on the left-hand side whereas the left-hand side has a pen and a note book. In the middle, is a laptop. (P. 49)
    2. Simile
      • Nicole says the Municipality is like the Jewish man in many ways (P.51).
      • The leaders are also like the Priest and the Levite in the story of the Good Samaritan (P. 51).
    3. Personification
      • This App must not be killed (P. 53).
    4. Symbolism
      • The shepherd have turned against the sheep in which the shepherd are the leaders at the Marcas Municipality whereas the sheep and citizens (P.51)
  2. Foreshadow
    • Montano thinks that the Samaritan might get Nicole in trouble and later in the play, it breeds trouble for her (P. 49). He still emphasizes on the impending danger that Nicole may face and that is what we witness later in the play (P.52).
  3. Flashback
    • Montano recalls the ultimatum the Mayor gave to her during the previous year on closing day at school while warning her of the impending danger (P.49).
  4. Irony
    • Montano finds it ironical that the leaders would reject The Samaritan when it is something good for the people (P. 50).
    • It is also ironical that the leaders whom citizens entrust power and expect would help them fail to come to their aid. Nicole tells Montano the irony in their leaders who talk about public interest and they miss to act (P. 51).
    • Nicole finds irony in the life of the leaders. Even though the salaries their leaders are paid cannot afford quite a flashy life, the leaders have flaunty lifestyle, they own big vehicles, huge houses and have plenty of money (P.53).
    • It is ironical that the religious priest and the Levite who hold same Christian ideologies with the Jewish man did not help him, yet The Samaritan man with a different religious background helped him and took him to a safe place (P. 50-51).
  5. Biblical Allusion
    • Nicole explains why people reject The Samaritan by referring to the Luke 10:25-37 in the biblical story of the Good Samaritan who saved a Jew despite the hostility that existed amongst them and treated a robbed man compassionately, dressed his wounds and took him to a safe place. She reveals that a priest and a Levite had seen the injured man who lay helplessly, but they had ignored him and gone their way (P. 50-51).
    • Nicole also brings the aspect of being one another’s keeper who takes care of one another as indicated in the bible Genesis 4:1-3 (P. 51).
  6. A story within a story
    • The story of the Good Samaritan is a story within a story aimed to bring out the irony in the society and show that leaders are negligent of the duties endowed to them by the citizens (P.50-51).
  7. Idiomatic expression
    • Nicole uses the word chicken out- fear (P.52).
    • Alvita says we smell trouble- we suspect issues (P. 50).
  8. Rhetorical questions
    • Montano asks “Why would the leaders reject what is good for the people? (P.50)” the question invites the audience to see the satirical nature of leadership in this play.
    • Alvita asks “Could they transfer you from our school? (P.52)” This is to show the concern they have about their teacher.
    • Nicole asks “So where do they get money? (P. 53)” This shows the corrupt nature of the leaders.

Act II Scene II - Mayor’s Visit

  1. Imagery
    1. Vivid Description
      • The scene is introduced by a vivid description of the principal’s boardroom which is a big rectangular room containing of a large ovoid mahogany table and various office seats. There is a table with a pen and a notebook as well as a bottle of water and glass (P.54).
      • Mossi describes Tedd as having an evil hairstyle, wearing ripped jeans, bangles and necklaces that are satanic (P.65).
      • Mossi clearly describes how Justice Jaden dresses smartly and wears a solemn look; he walks with confidence and looks fair and just (P.69).
    2. Metaphor
      • Mossi calls Ted the bat (P.64).
      • Mossi shares that any child who has dropped out of school has become a cabbage (P.67).
      • Mossi says that by electing a howler monkey they should not complain when it starts howling because they now want to read in silence (P.71).’
      • Mossi also says a computer Programme cannot stop a monkey from eating bananas (P.71).
    3. Similes
      • Mossi described roads as looking like part of an abandoned battlefield (P.62).
      • Mossi claims that his deputy gazes into empty spaces like an evil spirit waiting for fake title deeds to be printed (P.63).
      • Mossi argues that his deputy resembled the sloth (P.63).
      • Moss refers to Ted like the swine he is while referring to Ted (P.64).
      • Mossi indicates that Ted put up some site offices that look like cowsheds (p.64).
      • Mossi testifies, ‘Ted makes a whole Chamber smell like a nightclub and brewery (P.65).’
      • Mossi claims that Seymour has fake papers in law and he knows as much law as does the goat and that he has a goatee just like the he goat that he is (P.67).
      • Mossi shares that Jaden hawks justice like cabbages (P.69)
      • Mossi also says that Jaden’s looks are just as we see the flowers on the surface of a fresh grave (P.69).
    4. Personification
      • Mossi says that The Samaritan App is damaging his reputation (P.73)
    5. Hyperbole
      • Moss says that roads resemble the battlefield where bombs were detonated (P.62).
      • Mossi calls Ted a bat and a sinister creature that can’t see and sleeps upside down (P.64).
      • Mossi says that Hon. Ted King must have quit schooling after kindergarten and that he sleeps in a drum of illicit liquor (P.65).
      • Mossi also accuses the leaders for eating the whole loaf together with the wrapping and even the vendor (P.69).
      • All the Municipal leaders eat the whole loaf together with the wrapping where possible and even the vendor (P.69).
      • Mossi says that Justice Jaden hawks justices like cabbages (P.69).
      • Mossi claims that Hon. Seymour hides behind satanic dark glasses that threaten everyone and everything including his own shadow and he can also drive the devil out of hell (P.70).
  2. Allusion
    1. Biblical Allusion
      • Mossi says he is being crucified for mistakes of the people (P.61).
      • Mossi says the Son of Man cursed the legal professionals a biblical allusion to Jesus (p.70).
    2. Literal allusion
      • Mossi says that the Samaritan App presents the cock and bull story which is a mere excuse or implausible explanation that is unbelievable (P.73)
  3. Idiomatic expressions
    • Mossi refers to the leaders as eating, A loaf of bread-all the funds (P.69).
    • Nicole says the buck stops with you-Mossi is responsible of everything and should not blame it on anybody else (p.62).
  4. Rhetorical Question
    • Mossi asks Nicole “Can you even dare mention that? Haven’t you heard how dangerous he is? (P.66).”
  5. Idiophones
    • Shss (P.57 and 67).
  6. Onomatopoeia
    • Whining (P.71).
    • Slamming (P.73)
  7. Euphemism
    • Seed capital used by Mossi to mean bribe (P.61).
  8. Irony
    • Narine, the school principal thinks what Nicole is doing is good, yet she advices her not to get involved in something that will derail them from the greater good in line with the mission of the school (P.56).
    • Nicole finds it ironical that Mossi, who should be fighting corruption, is offering her a bribe so that she stops pursuing The Samaritan App meant to save the Municipality (P.59).
    • It is ironical that Mossi campaigned for Ted King and now he talks so ill of him (P.65-71).
    • Mossi is the Mayor yet he testifies that he can’t change anything in the Municipality (P.68).
    • It is ironical that most leaders in the Municipality have their families conducting most projects in the Council (p.69).
    • It is ironical for Justice Jaden to hawk justice (P.69).
    • Narine tells Mossi she had sent a copy of the letter a month ago, the Mayor says his in-tray is full of letters because he has always been busy. Given that it is his duty to read every letter daily, it shows that he is not working at all (P.58).
    • It is ironical that the citizens vote in leaders such as Seymour and Ted as a result of their opulence, the bribes they give them and how they dress in bling blings, satanic chains and other displays, yet they should consider the leadership qualification (P.65 and 70-71).
  9. Sarcasm
    • Nicole applies sarcasm to ask the Mayor to tell her whether he is really responsible for the problems faced in the Municipality (P.63).
    • Nicole sarcastically asks Mossi whether his deputy must be a disgrace (P.63).
    • Mossi uses sarcasm to talk about Hon. Ramdaye and how his entire family has invaded the Department of Infrastructure (P.69).
    • Mossi is sarcastic when referring to Justice Ian Jaden as a man whose true colors are contradictory to his smart nature (P.69).
    • Mossi sarcastically asks Nicole whether she thinks a computer Programme will stop a monkey from eating bananas (P.71).
    • Mossi is sarcastic when showing how some leaders lack knowledge and says that Seymour has fake papers in law and he knows as much law as does the goat (p.67).
  10. Satire
    • The act satirizes leaders such as the deputy Mayor, Ted, and Ramdaye by making Mossi reveal how uneducated, corrupt, and selfish the Municipal council officials are.
    • The scene also satirizes Mossi as a useless leader who averts his responsibilities to other leaders in the municipality when he is the one given the duty to protect the municipal.
    • The scene also satirizes the jurisdiction for failing to administer justice and engaging in crime.
  11. Humour
    • Mossi says that Seymour has fake papers in law and he knows as much law as does the goat (p.67).
    • He claims that Hon. Seymour hides behind satanic dark glasses that threaten everyone and everything including his own shadow and he can also drive the devil out of hell (P.70).
    • Mossi says when you elect a monkey into an office you should not complain when it begins to holler (P.71).
  12. Proverb and wise sayings
    • Nicole says an elephant that kills a rat is not a hero (P.57).
    • Narine says if you dare an elephant into a wrestling match, it will trample you (P.57).

Act II Scene III- The Political Strategy

  1. Imagery
    1. Vivid description
      • The scene starts at Madingo Golf Club in a Sky Room which looks exactly like the Jungle Room and it is well furnished and arranged. The Deputy Mayor, Hon. Ramdaye, Hon. Seymour, and Hon. Ted are standing around the tables on which are bottles of God White and Dark Rum (P.74).
    2. Personification
      • That’s a fat lie (P.86).
    3. Metaphor
      • Ted says “They are headless chicken (P.77)."
    4. Simile
      • You whizzed past me like an express train (P.75)
      • It was like a military operation (P.75)
      • Ramdaye says “They are like headless chicken (P.77).
  2. Hyperbole
    • Ted says he is on phone almost all night but there is little support forthcoming (P.76).
    • Ted comments of ethnic group as waiting for the leader to make decisions to go to pee for them (P.77).
  3. Allegory
    • There is the reference to Mossi-oa- Tunya as the smoke that thunders (P.75).
    • Hon. Yongrui is also called Mr. Developer (P.78).
  4. Idiophones
    • Aaa, aah, aah aah (P.74).
    • Sssh (P.78)
  5. Story within a story
    • Basdeo talks of Shang Ramas who went to fetch water and found two girls drawing water at the river hence married and settled them. One wife became the mother of the Indo while the other was the mother to the oriental people (P.83).
  6. Irony
    • Ted says he is on phone almost all night, yet there is little support forthcoming (P.76)
    • Ted wonders they call Hon. Ferreira Key when he can hardly commit to anything and can never make up his mind (P.76).
    • Ted finds irony in Basdeo’s behaviour, a man full of deceit and cunning behaviour (P.84).
  7. Humour
    • Ted expresses humour in the kind of stone that almost hit his head (P.74).
    • Seymour expresses shock that Ted could run so first and this is a source for laughter (P.75).
    • Ted says there is always a winner even in a beauty contest of monkeys (P.79).
  8. Mother tongue/Direct translation
    • Ted says many wise things and did strange things on phone (P.79).
    • Ted says He said that what will be, will be (P.76).
    • They vote with the stomach, so to speak. That means they will vote the side that gives more money (P.77)
  9. Flashback
    • The scene starts with Ramdaye recalling the violent disruption of their recent meeting (P.74).
  10. Juxtaposition
    • Ted recalls the recent violence and says “Sadly, we never anticipated this. I think The Mayor is a good organizer (P.75).”
    • Ramdaye suggests that Mr. Key cannot decide what and how much to eat (P.77).
  11. Idiomatic expressions
    • It missed my head by the thickness of a pig’s bristle-almost hit him (P.74).
    • There is more than meets an eye-it has a deeper or different surface meaning (P.75).
    • Ted says Ferreira has never seen a fence on which he can’t sit (P.76).
    • He also says Mr. Key kept talking in circles-repeating self (P.76)
    • Money changes hands-bribery (p.77).
    • His political star has been rising steadily-a successful politician (P.77).
    • That man is now crossing the red line-risking (P.85).
  12. Rhetorical questions
    • Ted asks “We live only once, don’t we? (P.84)”
    • Seymour asks questions such as “Do I look like an errand boy to you? Have you forgotten I will soon be your boss? (P.82).”
  13. Elipsis
    • Basdeo says, Just a story … eh… like… (P.83).

Act III Scene I- Ethics lesson

  1. Imagery
    1. Vivid Description
      • The stage directions show us where exactly the scene happens, Classroom at Sagrada secondary school is described to bring out the mental picture of the setting…high ceiling, well lit (P. 87)
    2. Symbolism
      • The good spirit symbolizes or stands for those that do what is right and just.
      • The evil spirit represents people who disobey set rules in the society. This evil spirits leads to destruction including the spirit of the Beast representing selfishness, brutality, and destruction (P.91).
  2. Allusion
    1. Biblical Allusion
      • During the lesson, parts of the Ten Commandments are mentioned during the discussion with focus on obedience. Do not worship other gods, do not kill, do not steal, do not commit adultery (P. 90).
    2. Literal Allusion
      • There is reference of Euripides quote of, ‘slow but sure moves the might of the gods’ the famous Greek playwright (P. 91).
  3. Ellipsis
    • Ellipsis has been used when Nicole says “and we must resist all those being controlled by the spirit of the….? (P.91) she does this so as to allow her students to fill in the missing word.
  4. Imagery
    1. Simile
      • Disobeying the rules of the Creator is like breaking the rules of those who made roads and vehicles (P.89).
    2. Story within a story
      • Nicole uses the story of the fall of Jerusalem to enlighten students on the aspects of disobedience and how it can affect people (P.90).\
    3. Rhetorical questions
      • Nicole asks the students a series of questions such as, “Do you think our municipality is undergoing destruction? Are there times we may not find drugs in our hospitals because of theft? Are there cases where a police officer cannot serve you unless you pay a bribe? Are there times you cannot get justice from our law courts? ”

Act III Scene II-The Saga

  1. Imagery
    1. Vivid Description
      • Inspector Bembe’s removes his scepter from the armpit of his left hand, places it on the table, removes his beret and mops the sweat off his brow (P. 93).
    2. Simile
      • You must know it is a serious matter, as serious as death (P.96).
      • You are as stubborn as a mule (P.95).
    3. Metaphor
      • Bembe tells Nicole, “ As I am saying this is the business of any monkey of a Samaritan (P.97).
  2. Ellipsis
    • Inspector Bembe does not allow Nicole to complete her statement. Nicole says she has not done anything wrong and…. (P. 93).
    • Nicole says leaders must not tell us to do the wrong things….. Bembe does not allow her to complete her statement too (P.93).
  3. Rhetorical Questions
    • Bembe asks Nicole, ‘so you won’t stop it eh?’ (P. 98).
  4. Hyperbole
    • Bembe says that, “the App is a grave danger to the society (P.97).”
  5. Irony
    • It is ironical that the Samaritan App meant to salvage the society from evils conducts including corruption and pollution is considered evil (P.97).
    • It is also ironical that Bembe says that have employed competent agencies to handle environmental degradation, yet they are not really doing much apart from molesting people like Nicole who are pointing on the societal ills(P.97).
    • It is ironical that the police officer wants to arrest Nicole in the name of protecting their lives when in reality he is doing so to protect Mossi (P.94).
  6. Idiom
    • Fighting a losing battle (P.94)

ACT III Scene III - The Judge’s Blackmail

  1. Imagery
    1. Vivid description
      • Has been used at the start of scene 3 and so there is the description of The Mayor who is seated. On the table are his usual stuff, the hat, three mobile phones and a walking stick.
    2. Simile
      • Word of her arrest spread like a bushfire (P100).
      • Mossi sprung to his feet like one stung by a bee pacing about his room in circles like a madman (101).
      • It looks like a sewer rat (P.113).
    3. Personification
      • Rodents have a sense of humour (P.110).
      • No one has an idea who gave birth to them (P.110).
      • They can learn to somersault (P.109).
      • They won’t give you way if you meet in the granary, You are buddies (P.110)
  2. Hyperbole
    • The rodents and other rat’s ability are exaggerated. The rodents are said to have an attitude.
    • Mossi tells Jaden that they have countless rodents in the granaries today and he thinks the rodents in the granaries are more than the grains (P 109).
  3. Rhetorical Questions
    • The judge uses rhetorical questions … And I am beginning to catch the smell of rats? (P.113).
    • Bembe asks, A whole judge in this kind of scandal? (P.108).
    • Look now what it has turned out to be? (P.112).
  4. Biblical Allusion
    • It has been used to compare the foolish rich man in the bible with Jaden who accumulated his wealth, in the hope of enjoying after retirement in Luke 12:16-21 (P. 112).
    • The invasion of the locusts is a biblical allusion of the locus that invades Egypt in Exodus 10:4 (P. 108)
  5. Foreshadow
    • Bembe thinks that these are his last days (P.99).
  6. Litote
    • Bembe says there was no soul in the whole vicinity of the Municipal Headquarters (P.101)
  7. Saying
    • When bad luck chooses you as a companion, even a ripe banana can knock off your teeth.
  8. Onomatopoeia
    • Huff and puff (P.110).
    • Springing to his feet (P.101).
  9. Satire
    • The whole scene is a mocking of the leadership in the municipal council for protecting themselves instead of the citizens.
    • Jaden as a judge is meant to ensure there is justice, however he is  at the center stage of impunity, corruption, and other social evils.
  10. Idiophone
    • Shss (P.102)
  11. Flashback
    • There is a flashback in which the rodents are reared in the Orchard Farm. Most of these rodents are like humans and they could counter human beings (110).
    • The other flashback is on how Jaden ruled two cases in favour of ivy; one to receive the contract of killing rats and another to bring specially trained cats to kill these rats (P.108-109).
  12. Sarcasm
    • Bembe sarcastically asks questions to Jaden, A whole judge in this kind of scandal? (P.108). Did they introduce specially trained cats (P.110).
    • Bembe further mocks Jaden by saying he will rush to the police station and send officers to arrest him and have him record a statement concerning the matter (P.111).
    • Mossi says this is the image of his Lordship Justice Ian Jaden, the lowest wretch that ever sat on the bench in maracas Municipality (p.111).
    • Bembe complains about the pronouncement Jaden he made and Mossi indicates how his verdict showed that the rats had an attitude and needed specially trained cats to kill (P.109).
    • Mossi is sarcastic when he says, introducing rodents into the farm was an act of great benevolence (P.111).
  13. Elipsis
    • Jaden says, I can’t. I can more solemnly swear that I didn’t… (P.109).
    • Mossi says, That is street gossip and… (P.110).
    • Bembe stammers, He must enforce law, and… eh… eh..(P.111).
    • Jaden says, Wait, gentlemen … I… what we can do… you still can’t (P.111). He also says You see gentlemen… you know very well those are fabrications… (P.111).
  14. Humour
    • Rodents have a sense of humour (P.110).
    • Mossi tells Jaden that they have countless rodents in the granaries today and he thinks the rodents in the granaries are more than the grains (P 109).
    • Mossi tells Jaden that they have countless rodents in the granaries today and he thinks the rodents in the granaries are more than the grains (P 109).
    • But tell me, did they introduce those specially trained cats?(P.110)
    • They won’t give you way if you meet in the granary, You are buddies (P.110)
  15. Soliloquy
    • Jaden remains standing and speaks to himself after the meeting. He reveals why he was involved in this corrupt deal. He intended to amass and retire early then enjoy his wealth. He also shares that everybody was doing it and when litigants gave him money to determine a case in their favour he did so. He also reveals his fear and the emergence of ulcers and well as having been haunted (p.112-113).
  16. Idiom
    • Mossi tells Jaden, I can’t take the bullet for you (P. 105).
    • Bembe says, My situation is out of hand (P.100).
    • Jaden says, You are playing dirty (P.111).

Act IV Scene I - The Plan

  1. Imagery
    1. Vivid Description
      • The scene is indicated to have happened at the Jungle Room in the Madingo Room Club. Jaden, is seated pensively, eyes peering above the rim of his eyeglasses, and hands fiddling with his pen (P.114).
      • Jaden is portrayed as having removed glasses and dusted them with his handkerchief (P.114).
      • Jaden is also said to sit down opposite Mr. Harvester. He adjusts his eyeglasses, then peers at Mr. Harvester from above the rim of the glasses (P.115).
    2. Symbolism
      • Rodents and rats are the evils done by the Municipality officials (P.117).
  2. Idiom
    • Jaden says I will get straight to the point (P.114).
    • Up in arms (P.118).
  3. Wise saying and proverb
    • To err is human (P.116).
    • If we come together, we win together (P.118).
  4. Rhetorical question
    • Jaden asks a number of rhetorical questions such as; Why don’t we come together and talk to one another? (P.118).
  5. Satire
    • It is satirical that the judiciary representative Jaden wills to sacrifice justice in the interest of what he calls the greatest number of people- the Municipal leaders (P.118). He is entrusted with protection of the law, which he sacrifices for his sake.
    • It is satirical that Harvester whom Jaden calls a man of God is also involved in criminal activities that Mossi dictates him to conduct. He hides behind the belief that he has a Christian duty to obey his leader (P.115).
    • Satire is also build as Jaden says the ethos prevailing in society influence his thinking and actions. The satire too happens when he says his rulings in many ways reflect the prevailing culture in society (P.116).
  6. Irony
    • It is ironical that Jaden who is a judge got unwittingly entangled in the safe affair for which Mayor Mossi wants to put Hon. Ramdaye and Mr. Basdeo in jail. He made a ruling that clearly betrayed his bias as an interested party and they paid him shares of a company that the Municipal intends to sue (P.116).
    • Jaden uses the principle of the greatest happiness for the greatest number to reunite with Mossi and everyone else in the fight to win a case, yet the greatest number are citizens whose resources should be safeguarded and not the Municipal leaders (P.118).
    • Harvester finds it ironical that Jaden is entangled in a scandal with Ramdaye, Ted, Seymour and Basdeo (P.116). He is a judge who should protect the public interest, yet he colludes with the politicians in criminal activities.
  7. Onomatopoeia
    • Fiddling (P.114).
    • Clasped (P.117).
  8. Hyperbole
    • Lately I am even catching the smell of sewer rats. It is awful. It makes me want to throw up and my stomach is beginning to ache (P.117).

Act IV Scene II - Reconciliation

  1. Imagery
    1. Vivid description
      • We are able to see the setting which is the chambers of the principal judge, a large room furnished with a large table in the middle and wooden chair on both sides.  (P.120).
  2. Idiom
    • Jaden says that a lot of beans have been spilt (P. 122). And wheel of justice must turn.
    • Put a spotlight on us (P.122).
    • Have skeletons in their closets (P.121).
    • To save our skins (P.120).
    • Up in arms (P.122).
    • Gives me the willies (P.124).
    • Speaks volumes (P.125).
  3. Sayings and Proverbs
    • Seymour tells Jaden that he lives in a glass house, and he still insists on throwing stones (P. 122).
    • Never hit a snake if you haven’t seen its head (P.120).
  4. Humor
    • Ted says that the teacher is a tough woman, but very beautiful! You should look at her legs! (P.126).
  5. Ellipsis
    • Basdeo says, we may all have some skeletons, but on balance, some of the skeletons are… (P.121).
  6. Rhetorical question
    • Jaden asks, ‘Assuming we talk to her and she turns out to be agreeable, how would she help?(P.124).’
    • Ramdaye asks Ted, ‘What did you smoke?(P.126).’

Act IV, Scene III - Justice

  1. Irony
    • It is ironical that the leaders of Maracas think that Nicole is in agreement with their suggestion of bringing her onboard and they celebrate she owes Maracus Municipality and the country a civil duty and she is ready to work with, yet she is not willing to join them at all (P.133-134)
    • Nicole finds it ironical when Mossi believes Nicole can get into contract with the Municipality and that is what will save the world. On the contrary, she thinks now laws or officers or positions can save it, the change should come from within themselves (P.135). She says they need patriotic citizens to enhance transparency (P. 133).
    • It is ironical that the leaders pretend they are ready for change at Maracas yet it is not true. They are only after winning Nicole to their side and tell her that they appreciate her contribution in enhancing service delivery to the people, yet they are after benefiting themselves (P.133).
    • It is ironical also that even though good governance stretches back to the beginning of human history, the many years of management worsen the situation. Currently, the citizens are enslaved by their own people when the forefathers were enslaved by the white people (P.130).
  2. Satire
    • It is satirical that even though good governance stretches back to the beginning of human history, the many years of management worsen the situation. Currently people are enslaved by their own people when the forefathers were enslaved by the white people (P.130).
  3. Sarcasm
    • Seymour pulls his goatee and leaning back on his seat, hence sarcastically tells Bembe that, he did not know they were coming for a sermon (P.136).
    • Narine sarcastically refers to Nicole as a headstrong girl (P.129).
    • She also tells her to go ahead and upload everyone on that App (P.129).  She even tells her she neither her secretary nor a house girl.
  4. Biblical Allusion
    • Several instances are inferred from the bible.
    • Nicole tells the gentlemen that the new era should be characterized by everyone being a brother’s keeper as shown in Genesis 4: 1-13 and Matthew 25: 31-40) (P.134).
    • Nicole compares the state of Maracas municipality to the valley of the dry bones in the bible in Ezekiel 37:1-10(P.136).
  5. Ellipsis
    • Ellipsis has been used to show omission of words. Instances of ellipsis are as follows.
    • Nicole tells Madam Principal   you are certainly not, madam principal, but please….’ (P. 128).
    • My apologies, madam … (P. 129).
    • Basdeo says, “Well I don’t quite understand that …..(P.135).”
    • The Mayor responds to Basdeo by saying. The municipality is vested in me…(P. 135).
  6. Imagery
    1. Vivid Description
      • The scene starts on Wednesday at lunch hour at the Sagrada Secondary school in the principal’s boardroom. Narine is dressed in her trade mark style-flowery sari and gorgeous headscarf -pacing uneasily about the room, breathing rather heavily. From outside, the footsteps of a lady approaching on the corridor can be heard. Then there is a knock on the door (P.128).
      • There is another vivid description where it is stated, the visitors file in, the guests shake hands with the principal and Nicole. They all take seats and the principal clears her throat (P.131).
      • We are also informed of a brief awkward moment after which Jaden clears his throat and fiddles with the eyeglasses he had removed in his hands. It is indicated, Jaden and company exchange glances (P. 132). They all stand with relief and cheerfully move to shake Nicole’s hand in turns. Nicole stands up, though looked rather puzzled (P.133).
      • The writer described the boardroom as having a relaxed mood as people resume their seats (P.134).
      • There is silence as the mayor and company look at one another inquisitively. Then there is a loud knock on the door, which opens slowly. The School Principal enters, followed by a tall, uniformed police officer (P137).
    2. Symbolism
      • Narine tells Nicole that, she has severally said the bamboo that bends is stronger than the oak that resists. The oak stands for Nicole who is determined to ensure that the leadership of maracas if held accountable (P. 130).
      • The Beast stands for leaders that are corrupt, misuse their offices or powers (P. 136).
    3. Simile
      • But like misguided helmsman… (P.137).
    4. Metaphor
      • The vessel us dangling dangerously- Maracus is in great trouble (P.137).
  7. Rhetorical questions
    • Nicole asks, “frankly speaking, if all of you dipped his fingers into the public rill, or broke the law in any way, would you be where you are today? Would our Municipality be in its present condition? (P.137).”
    • Narine asks Nicole, “You think that is fair to me? To the students? To the school? Do you think the life of our school is all about the App? (P.129).”
    • Narine also asks Nicole, “Did you ever care to know what battles I am fighting to ensure your safety and defend the school’s position? (P.129).”
  8. Idiomatic Expression
    • Dipped his fingers into the public till-looted public property (P.137).
    • Cutting her short-interrupts (P.128).
    • Mossi says that he treads on people’s toes (P.132).
  9. Saying and Proverbs
    • Narine cautions Nicole that the bamboo that bends is stronger than the oak the resists (P.130).
    • If you can’t turn the wind turn the sail (P.130).
  10. Hyperbole
    • Narine says,  “she will have no choice but to personally grab Nicole by her pants and hound her out of her vicinity through the nearest available opening  ( P.130).”
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