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  • Answer three questions only
  1. Imaginative composition (compulsory) (20 marks)
    1. Write a composition ending in the following words …………………………….. “If I was given another chance I would do things in a different way”.


    2. Write a story to illustrate the saying. “Once bitten twice shy”.
  1. Compulsory set text.
    Henry Ole Kulet, BLOSSOMS OF THE Savannah                            (20marks)
    “For Oloisudori and Olarinkoi there is no lesser evil.” With illustrations from Henry Ole Kulet’s, BLOSSOMS OF THE SAVANNAH write an essay illustrating the truth of this statement.
  1. The optional set texts (20marks)
    Answer any of the following three questions.
    1. The short story
      Chris Wanjala (Ed) Memories we lost
      “A strong desire to accumulate more wealth can lead one to making imprudent decisions” Using the short story HOW MUCH LAND DOES MAN NEED by Leo Tolstoy, write an essay to justify the above proposition.


    2. Drama
      David Mulwa, Inheritance
      With illustrations from David Mulwa’s INHERITANCE write an essay showing how Neo-slavery manifests itself in African countries.


    3. The Novel
      John Steinbeck, The Pearl
      “Fortune can sometimes lead us to calamities and bad omens.” Discuss this statement with reference to THE PEARL by John Steinbeck.


    1. Points of interpretation.
      • The  sentence  given must appear at the end of the composition
      • Mark with an asteric (*) to indicate that the candidate ended with the given statement.  (If not deduct 2 mks)  AD  (automatic deduction)
      • The story must be relevant to the given sentence i.e a situation where one regrets having done something in the wrong way.  Deduct up to 4 marks AD for irrelevance.
      • The candidate must the first person narration technique  if not treat as irrelevant and apply rule © above.
      • Read the composition and decide on the linguistic category of the candidate i.e ABC or D.
      • A ward a numerical mark based on the linguistic competence demonstrated by the candidate.
    2. Points of interpretation.
      • It must be a story illustrating the proverb. If not  treat as irrelevant and deduct upto 4 mks (AD)
      • Must be a story and not a philosophical statement.  If a philosophical statement deduct upto 4 mks (AD)
      • Candidates should not begin the story be attempting a definition of the proverb if so deduct upto 2 marks (AD)
      • Must include the saying (Almost towards the  end of the story)  if not deduct upto 2 marks (AD)
      • It is the linguistic competence demonstrated by a candidate that carries majority of the marks.
      • Read the composition and decide on the linguistic category  of the candidate i.e A, B C or D.
      • Award a numerical mark based on the Linguistic competence demonstrated by the candidate.
        The table below gives a summary of how to grade candidates in various linguistic categories.
        The composition is marked out of 20 whose final total mark is assessed as follows:-
        The candidate either does not communicate at all or the language ability is so minimal that the examiner has to practically guess what the candidate wants to say. The candidate fails to fit the English words he/she knows into meaningful sentence. The subject is glanced at or distorted. Practically no valid punctuationAll kinds of errors. “Broken English”

        D- 01-02 chaotic little meaning whatsoever. Questions paper or some words from it simply copied
        D 03 flow of thoughts almost impossible to follow. The errors are continuously.
        D+ 04-05 although the English is always broken and the essay is full of errors of all types, we can at least guess what the candidate wants to say.
        The candidate communicates understandably but only more or less clearly. No confidence in language use. The subject is often undeveloped. There may be some digressions. Unnecessary repetitions are frequent. The arrangement is weak and the flow jerky. There is no economy of language. Mother tongue influence is felt.
        C- 06-07 the candidate finds it difficult to communicate his/her ideas. Is seriously hampered by the very limited knowledge of structure and vocabulary. This results in many gross errors of agreementSpelling, misuse of prepositions, tense, verb, agreement and sentence construction.

        C 08 The candidate communicate but not with consistence clarity. The linguistic ability is very limited, cannot avoid frequent errors in sentence structure. There is little variety or originalityVery bookish EnglishLinks are weak, incorrect, repeated at times
        C+ 90-10
          The candidate communicates clearly but in a flat and uncertain manner. Simple concepts; sentence forms are often strained. There may be an overuse of clichésunsuitable idiomsProverbs are misquoted or misinterpreted. The flow is still jerky. There are some errors of agreement, tense, spelling.

        This class is characterized by greater fluency and ease of expression. The candidate demonstrates that he/she can use English as a normal way of expressing himself/herself. Sentences are varied and usually well constructed. Some candidates become ambitious and even over- ambitious. There may be items of merit of the one word or whole expression type. Many essays in this category may be first clean and un assuming but they still show that the candidate is at ease with language. There may be a tendency to under mark such essays. Give credit to tone.

        B-  11-12   The candidate communicates fairly and with some fluency. There may be little variety in sentence structure. Gross errors  are still found occasionally, but this must not be over punished by the examiner
        B 13
         the sentences are varied but rather simple and straight forward. The candidate does not strain him/herself in an effort to impress. There is fair range of vocabulary and idiomsNatural and effortless. Some items of meritsEconomy of language.
        B+  14-15  the candidate communicates ideas pleasantly and without strain. There are errors and slips.Tenses, spelling and punctuation are quite good .a number of items of merits of the “whole sentence” or the “whole expression” type.

        The candidate communicates not only fluently but attractively with originality and efficiency. Has the ability to make us share his/her deep feelings, emotions, enthusiasms. Expresses his/herself freely and without any visible constraint. The script gives evidence of maturity, good planning and often humourMany items of merits which indicates that the candidate has complete command of the language. There is no strainjust pleasantness, clever arrangement, felicity of expression.

        A- 16-17 
        The candid ate shows competence and fluency in using the language may lack imagination or originality which usually provides the “spark” in such essays. Vocabulary, idioms, sentence structure, links, variety are impressivegross errors are very rare.

        A 18
        Positive ability. A few errors that are felt to be slips. The story or argument has a definite impact. No grammar problems. Variety of structures .definite sparkMany margin ticks

        A+ 19-20
        The candidate communicates snot only information and meaning but also and especially, the candidate’s whole selfFeelings,tastespoints of viewyouthculture. This ability to communicate deep self may express itself in many ways: wide range of effective vocabulary, original approach, vivid and sustained accounts in the case of a narrative, well developed and ordered arguments in the case of a debate or discussion. Errors and slips should not derive the candidate of the full marks deserved. A very definite sparks
        ERRORS/MISTAKE-(Gross and minor)
        GROSS ERRORS interfere /distort communication/meaning while MINOR ERRORS only slightly  do so.


      • Joining two different words
      • Separating one word
      • Wrong spelling of common words/misuse of words-elementary vocabulary
      • Vagueness
      • Direct translation
      • Illogicality
      • Word order
      • Construction
      • Capitalization
      • Punctuality marks-misuse/omitted
      • Any error of agreement
      • Serious tense error.
      • Ridiculous use of idioms that affect communication
      • Misuse of common prepositions


      • Omission of a comma
      • Misspelling of a difficult word
      • Minor construction error (doesn’t distort meaning)
      • Slips

        ITEMS OF MERIT (√)

      • Correct use of phrasal verbs
      • Sayings
      • Sentence inversions
      • Ellipses
      • Correct use of idiomatic expression
      • Correct use of vocabulary


      • COW (candidate own writing) to indicate that a candidate has used a pencil to make a correction
      • BRACKETS [  ] indicate that a pat of ‘D’ script that communicates
      • Use an ASTERICK (*) to indicate that an item or a sentence that the rubrics indicate should be used
      • To indicate an item of merits use a tick (√) either above a word or in the margin for the whole sentence.


      • Read through first to get a feel
      • Decide on the degree of communication-A-D
      • After underlining decide on the mark category
      • Allocate a numerical mark


        1. IRRELEVANCY
          • Consistent distortion of questions, evasion of questions, writing on a totally different subject
          • The question is given an unacceptable or questionable interpretation
          • Essays contain long, semi-relevant digressions or lack coherence

          • Mark the essay and give a linguistic mark and comment on the nature of the irrelevancy.
          • Deduct up to 4 marks
          • If the candidate answers both Q1a and (b only, mark the first
          • If an essay is too short(less than 150 words) deduct up to 2mks
          • But if too long (more than 450 words) deduct up to 2mks
          • If note form used, deduct up to 2marks
          • If the opening/closing sentence not used, deduct up to 2mks
            *advice candidate to generally avoid vulgarity and praise of vice.
          Panga,  rungu,  shamba, murram, matatu, wananchi, ugali, madarasa, harambee,  matoke, maendeleo ya wanawake,salaam,aya,askari,debe,duka,nyayo,boma,sukumawiki,manyatta,goiat party magendo, safari.
          Accept American spelling provided it is consistently used in a certain word.
  2. Compulsory set  text
    The candidate is expected to organize his/her essay into
    - Introduction  (2 mks)
    - Body – 4 well illustrated points  ( 3 x 4 )  = 12 marks)
    - Conclusion     (2 mks)
    - The remainder (4 mks)  to be awarded for  Language.
    - Award language marks depending on the candidates score in the body as follows.
    1 – 3       -  1
    4  -  6     -   2
    7  -  9     -  3
    9  - 12    - 4

    - Marked out of  (2 mks)
    - Should be the first paragraph of the essay.
    - Should demonstrate that a candidate has correctly interplated the questions.
    - Definition of the terms used in the question does not amount to an introduction.
    - Award the marks for introduction as follows

    2 marks (full)  for a relevant  and fiting  introduction
    1 mark (fair) – for a fairly done introduction
    0 mark – for an irrelevant or missing introduction.

    - Each point answering the question  should be in its own paragraph.
    - Candidate should demonstrate skills in writing a well organized paragraph.
    - Grading of paragraph is done as follows.
    -Full – for a well illustrated and relevant paragraph   (3 mks)
    -Fair – A paragraph that is fairly  explained  and fairly illustrated (2 mks)
    -Thin – An attempt to answer the question. (1 mk)
    -Unpointed – A paragraph that shows  misunderstanding of the question or answering the question wrongly (0 mks)
    -Textual error- Confusion of the plot, style, theme or character (0 mks)
    -Narration – Key words and points are missing in a paragraph the angle of answering not detected (o mks)
    -A well written paragraph expected to be organized in terms of :-

    • a topic sentence (main point)
    • illustrations from the text.
    • Clincher (concluding sentence)

      - Treat the conclusion as either valid or invalid.
      -  Award of conclusion marks depends on score on the body  i.e
      Body score                  Conclusion
      1 - 6                                  1
      7  - 12                             2
      Invalid conclusion             0
      NB  it is important to note that the above marking instruction apply to the essays in question3
      - Suggested response for question 2

      Our  society comprises of individual with different qualities and character while some may be positive other characters  positive other characters posses traits are extremely  unpleasant.  In Blossoms of the Savannah the  writer presents Oloisudori and Olarinkoi as two individuals with an extremely  obnosious/ annoying

      The begin with the two character suffer from sexual greed.  Ole Supeyo warns Ole Kaelo to keep his girls away  from Oloisudori for the suffer from  sexual greed Oloisudoi is said to have a reputation that would rival that  of a randy he goat.  Olarinkoi is also sexually greedy.  It is no wonder  he takes Resian to his hot against he will and tries to rape her.

      The  two characters are  also  portrayed  as chauvinistic. They believe that a woman should not make decision over her life, including on sensitive issues like marriage.  Oloisudori wants Resian married to him by force while Olaninkoi plansto circumcise her and make her his wife by force.

      In addition Both Oloisudori and Olarinkoi are opportunistic on one hand Oloisudori tales advantage of  Kaelo’s  independence to have to marry his daughter by force.  Olaninkoi takes  advantage of  Resian’s desperate  situation as she tries to run away from force marriage.  He also rides on the trust he had earned from the two girls when he saved them from a near rape.

      Moreover the two individualsbelieve in the use of force to gratify their desire oloisdori plans to have his men abduct Resian and bring her to his home as a wife. Olarinkoi uses pretence to take Resian to his village where he intends forcefully circumstances her and take her as his wife.

      Just like many  other men in Nasila.  The two characters adhere to backward cultural believes that oppress women.  Oloisudon insists that Resian should be circumcised before being married to him.  Olarinkoi also treasures  this  backward culture for  he plans to  have Resian circumcised  before making her his wife.
      To sum up it is true to say that this two individual posseses a character that is extremely unpleasant a serious change in cultural values  is needed in order to eliminate such individual.

    1. How much land does  man need Leo Toistoy
      When one fails to be satisfied with that they have  they  may do anything in order to gain more material possession.  A strong drive to gain possessions may at times have disastrous affects through the character of Pahom in the story  How much land does man need the writer portrays a man who is not satisfied with what he has and ends up paying for it.

      To begin with Pahom decides to leave behind all his possession in search for more land.  He already  owns 123 acres of land a big house and animals.  However this does not satisfy him and he still yearn to acquire more land.

      Secondly, Pahom imprudently uses his earning to buy presents for the Bashkirs.  This presents are ment to act as a bribe to the chief of the Bashkirs.  The chief impressed by the gifts decides to offer Pahom  a token of  appreciation in return for his presents.

      In addition rather  that taking care of what he already has Pahom decides to take a long journey is search of more land.  The journey to the Bashkirs is costly in terms of resources and time Pahom is also accompanied by some of his workers who would have remained behind taking care of his property.

      Instead of purchasing land in the normal way Pahom accept a rather strange way of purchasing land.  Pahom is to walk as large area as he wants after paying 1000 roubles.  He is to mark his starting point and be back before sunset because of greed Pahom agrees to his strange way of acquiring land as he believes it will suit him.

      Moreover Pahom overstretches himself by walking too far from his starting point. He walks until the people in the starting point are not visible when he. Thinks he has walked long enough and should starting going back he is enticed by a damp hollow and continuous to walk farther. Greed makes him to turn when it was necessary to do so.

      Finally Pahom values material possession more than his life .After walking for long time Pahom is in serious pain and exhausition. Fear of not achieving his goal makes him start running despite the heat, dehydration and pain.   He is aware the strain will kill him. However he decides to keep going even though he is dying Pahom does of exhaustion upon reaching his start point.
      In conclusion it is true that a desire to be more wealthy can lead to disasters and even death. We should strive to be always satisfied with what God has given us.

    2. David Mulwa Inheritance
      Despite being independent Africans still find themselves oppressed and enslaved in various ways. Citizen of Katula find themselves under the yoke of oppression from their leaders despite the country having acquired self rule.

      To begin with the leaders are living luxuriously while the common people live in a poor state. Citizen cannot even get access to basic commodities like water as the rivers have been diverted by the leaders for their irrigation projects. There is also joblessness which lead to suffering of people.

      Kutula is also characterized by indiscriminate killing of these who fall out with the government. Judan narrowing escapes death after refusing to heed to   Lacunas call to his brother Bengo. He is finally killed in the mines through an organized murder by Lacuna’s men.

      In addition leaders in Kutula are amassing wealth at the expense of the citizen. Taminas land has been cheaply bought by Chipande. Lacuna himself uses money borrowed in the name of the country to buy himself an aeroplane and banks the rest of the money abroad in his personal accounts.

      Moreover those who speak against the leadership are imprisoned. Bengo spends a long time in prison because he is Lacunas political enemy. Lacuna terms Bengo as a thorn in his political side. When he went to prison Lulu was a little girl. He comes out to find her a grown up girl ready to sit for her fourth form examination.

      The leaders are also morally debased. Lacuna wants to marry Lulu by force despite being older than her father. This act also portray disrespect for his wife. Lulu Makes it clear that he cannot marry Lacuna despite his wealth.
      In conclusion it is evident from the discussion above that poor leadership is prevalent in African country. It is not a wonder that African countries lay behind in development due to poor leadership.

    3. John Steinbeck, The Pearl
      A valuable object which is expected to bring happiness and satisfaction can sometimes turn to be disastrous. Kino’s discovery of the pearl of the world is expected to turn his life for the better. However the events that follow this discovery are a tragedy not just to Kino but also to his family.

      Firstly, Kino’s Pearl make him and his family insecure. At night he is attacked by a man who has come to steal the pearl. Kino has to remain awake for the rest of the night for fear of a similar attack.

      Secondly, there develops a strained relationship between Kino and his wife. Upon realizing that the pearl is a bad omen Juana tries to throw it back to the sea. However Kino catches up with her and quarrels ensures where he strikes her and leaves her injured.

      Thirdly Kino becomes a murderer. After striking his wife Kino pick the pearl and begin to walk home with it shortly. He is attacked in the darkness by a man who is interested in stealing the pearl. Kino is able to defend himself but the struggle leaves the attacking man dead.

      Moreover Kino and his family become fugitives running away from trackers. After failing to secure a good prize from the pearl buyers in the town of La Paz, he decides to go and sell it in the city. On the way the family is followed by trackers and the only way to escape them is to go up the mountain.

      Kino has to commit more murder by killing the trackers. He does this an attempt to protect the pearl which he believes is the object to deliver him from poverty to riches.

      Lastly Kino’s son Coyotito is shot dead. During his struggle with the trackers in the mountain his son Coyatito loses his life after being shot by one of the trackers. This forces Kino to change his mind he decides to take back the Pearl to the sea where it belongs.
      It is clearly shown in the discussion above that what is regarded as a fortune can turn out to be disaster true happiness can only be found where there is peace and not in material things.
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