HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT Marking Scheme - Form 1 End of Term 1 2019 Examinations

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SECTION A (40 marks)

  1. Define the term History (1mk
    • It is the study of man’s past chronological account and records of events.
  1. State two periods in History. (2mks
    • Pre- history (Unrecorded History)
    • History (written history)
  1. State two limitations of oral tradition as a source of History. (2mks
    • The accuracy depends of one’s memory/ one can forget some information.
    • Information may contain important omission.
    • Method may be too expensive.
    • Method may be affected by language barrier.
  1. Give two forms of Government (2mks
    • Democratic
    • Aristocratic
    • Monarchial
    • Dictatorial
  1. Outline four characteristics of government (4mk
    • Rules to govern members of the society
    • sovereignity
    • Jurisdiction
    • Legitimacy
    • Law of enforcement.
  1. Name two sources of information used in oral tradition (2mks
    • Myths
    • legends
    • Fork tale
    • Proverbs
    • songs
    • Poems
  1. State three archaeological sites in Kenya. (3mks
    • Ol-Logesaille                                       
    • Rusinga Island
    • Kariandusi                                           
    • Njoro- River-Cave
    • Hyrax Hill                                           
    • Gambles Cave
  1. Identify two sub species of Homo sapiens. (3mks
    • Rhudesian man
    • Neanderthal man
    • Crog-magnon
  1. State and explain two theories that explain the origin of man. (4mks
    • Creation theory. Religious explanation e.g. Bible, Koran that explains how God created earth first man.
    • Mythical/ traditional stories/ myths narrated by various communities based on people popular beliefs.
    • Evolution- slow gradual change in human state that men evolved from simple life.
  1. Name the last three stages of evolution. (3mk
    • Homo erectus
    • Homo sapiens
    • Homo sapien sapiens
  1. State two main types of Acheulian tools. (2mks
    • Hand Axe        
    • Scrape
    • Cleaves            
    • Chisel
  1. List four physical characteristics of Homo Erectus. (4mks
    • Had an upright posture as they walked on twos
    • Had a large brain capacity upto 1100cc.
    • Was highly intelligent as he made refined tools for specific purposes e.g. hand axes and scrappe.
    • Communicate well using speech.
    • Was large in structure- 5ft tall.
    • Possessed prominent brow ridge over the eyes.
  2. Name the two rivers that were associated with early agriculture in Mesopotamia. (2mks
    • River Tigris
    • River Euphrates
  1. Name the first animal to be domesticated by man. (1mk
    • Dog
  1. Identify two major indigenous crops of most third world countries. (2mks
    • Millet                                 
    • Rice                         
    • Barley
    • Sorghum                             
    • Wheat
  1. Give two characteristics of the Agrarian revolution. (2mks
    • Mechanisation,
    • Abolition of follows
    • Land enclosure
    • Application of manure as fertilizers,
    • Animal bleeding
  2. Define the term Agrarian Revolution (1mk
    • Radical change that took place in Agriculture and livestock rearing.





  1. State five advantages of using oral tradition as a source of information on History and government.(5mks
    • It is important to the study of pre- history.
    • They intergrate the study of history with other social studies
    • It is cheap as it doesn’t require experts or special equipment.
    • Useful in societies where art of writing has not been fully developed.
    • It compliments other sources of information on History and Government.
  1. List five dating methods used by archaeologist. (5mks
    • Chemical dating
    • Geologica
    • Stratigraphy
    • Fission tract dating
    • Statistical
  1. Give five importance of studying history. (5mks
    • learners - learn about cultural, economic and political organization of different people of the world.
    •  Appreciate values of other people and their contribution to civilization.
    • History enables people to appreciate the past way of life.
    • Trains learners to develop the capacity for critical analysis of historical data
    • It gives a sense of patriotism and national pride is developed
    • It’s a way of preparing the community or society for life.
    • It fosters empathy- the ability to understand how people think and feel, positions and roles in society.
  1. Outline five reasons why Africa is referred to as cradle of human kind. (5mks
    • There are numerous archaeological sites on the continent where early fossils that resemble man have been found.
    • Savanna grasslands provided space for early man’s existence for it was warm throughout the year.
    • There were many all season rivers that provided fresh water and trapping for wild animals.
    • Geographically Africa was at the centre of the pangea.
    • Many fossils have been discovered in Africa.
  1. Describe the culture of early man during the New Stone Age Period. (10mks
    • Man made better tools (microlith
    • Man made better shelter than tree branches i.e. grass thatched huts which were decorated.
    • Man ate balanced diet- game meat, gathered fruits/ food crops from farms.
    • Man grew crops, kept animals i.e. development of agriculture.
    • development of government as people lived in groups with rules and regulations.
    • Development of language for communication
    • Specialized in skills – poultry, basketry
    • Development of trade.
  1. Explain five ways in which early human beings benefited from the discovery of fire. (10mks
    • Man could warm himself during cold nights
    • The flashes of fire could give him light at night
    • The fire could provide him with protection by frightening and keeping dangerous animals away.
    • Man also used fire to harden the tips of his tools such as spears, shafts and fishing harpoons.
    • Fire was used in hunting to chase and scare wild animals.
    • Used fire to cook and soften his food.
  1. What were the results of development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia (10mks
    • Increased food production
    • Development of urban centres
    • Development of trade.
    • Establishment of administration
    • Developmen of Law and order.
    • Development of religion
    • Development of arithmetic to record.
  1. Outline five factors that led to Agrarian Revolution in America during the Agrarian Revolution. (10mks
    • Introduction of land enclosure system in Britain made small holders to migrate to USA.
    • Introduction of slave labour expanded agriculture.
    • Introduction of plantation and estate farming, expanded land for farming
    • Division of major farming zones based on climate and soils
    • Increased demand for food by growing population.
    • High demand for agricultural raw materials.
    • Application of new improved farming methods e.g. use of machines.
    • Development of good transport and communication
    • Scientific invention for quality breeds of plants and animals
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