Geography Questions and Answers - Form 2 End of Term 3 Exams 2022

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    1. Give two types of open cast mining. (2marks)
    2. State three ways in which opencast mining affects the environment. (3marks)
    1. What is the relationship between Geography and Mathematics? (2marks)
    2. State four reasons why it is important to study Geography. (4marks)
    1. Name the two layers of discontinuity that are part of the interior structure of the earth. (2marks)
    2. State three characteristics of the outer core in the interior structure of the earth. (3marks)
    1. Name two forms of precipitation that commonly occur in Kenya. (2marks)
    2. What is a Stevenson’ Screen? (2marks)
    1. Give four importance of weather forecasting (4marks)
    2. Name four layers of the atmosphere (4marks)
    3. Differentiate between weather and climate. (2marks)
  6. Use the table below showing the number of tourists who visited Kenya between year





















      1. Using a scale of 1cm to represent 20,000 tourists, draw a compound bar graph to represent this data. Use the graph paper provided. (8marks)
      2. What is the number of tourists who visited Kenya in the year 2011. (2marks)
    2. State three advantages of the technique used in (a) above (3marks)
      1. Differentiate between forest and forestry (2marks)
      2. Name three tropical hardwood trees found in Kenya (3marks)
    2. Explain how the following factors influence the distribution of natural forests
      1. Temperature. (2marks)
      2. Altitude. (2marks)
      3. Human activities. (2marks)
    3. Compare softwood forests in Kenya and Canada under the following sub headings:
      1. Tree species. (2marks)
      2. Period of harvesting. (2marks)
      3. Marketing of forest products. (2marks)
    4. State four measures that have been taken to manage forests in Kenya (4marks)
    1. What is a photograph? (2marks)
    2. Differentiate between the following:
      1. Aerial and ground photographs. (2marks)
      2. Aerial oblique and ground oblique photographs (2marks)
    3. Describe the three types of Ground photographs (6marks)
    4. State four characteristics of ground general view photographs. (4marks)


      1. stripping
      2. hill slope boring
      • it leads to soil erosion
      • it leaves behind ugly craters/dereliction
      • causes air and water pollution
      • leads to destruction of biodiversity/plants and animals
      • Dumped rocks wastes litters the environment
      • craters left behind accumulate with water to form breeding grounds for mosquitoes.
    1. mathematical techniques are used in drawing graphs and pie charts and mathematical formulae are used in geography to calculate distances,areas,population density .
      1. facilitates good relationship among nations by studying geography of other regions of the world
      2. it is a career subject in that it enables one to go for advanced studies in specialized fields
      3. helps in conservation of environment
      4. promotion of industry
      5. helps in managing time
      1. mohorovicic discontinuity
      2. gutenberg discontinuity
      1. composed of very dense rocks
      2. made up of nickel and iron
      3. tempererature are up 3700c
      1. snow
      2. dew
      3. rain
      4. mist and fog
    2. stevenson screen-a white wooden box mounted on 4 legs used to house thermometers and hygrometerers.
      1. helps to be aware of natural calamities related to weather before they occur so as totake precautionary measures
      2. guiding tourists on when to visit national parts.
      3. helps farmers to plan their activities such as planting ,harvesting
      4. helps sporting people to plan their training and competition schedules.
      5. helps fishing commuties to plan their activities
      1. stratosphere
      2. troposphere
      3. mesosphere
      4. thermosphere
    3. weather-is daily atmospheric conditions of a particular place at a specific time over a short period of time while climate is average weather conditions of a given place over a long period of time (30-35)
      1. Difference between forest and forestry.
        Forest refers to a group of trees growing together and usually covering a large tract of land.
        Forestry is the science of cultivating forests. 1 x 2 = (2 mks)
      2. Three tropical hardwoods trees in Kenya:-
        - Meru oak - Elgon olive
        - Elgon teak - Camphor
        - Mvuti - Mangrove 1 x 3 = (3 mks)
    2. How the following factors influence the distribution of natural forests:-
      1. Temperature
        • Many trees prefer temperatures between 10ºC and 35ºC.
        • Cold climates have lower number of trees species that are capable of surving.
        • In areas with temperatures above 21oC, tropical rainforest dominates.
        • Where temperatures are low with a shore rainy season, coniferous trees are dominant. Any 1 x 2 = (2 mks)
      2. Altitude
        • Tree growth is limited to altitude below 3 500m.
        • Types of trees growing at different heights vary. At lower levels of tropical mountains, there are tropical rainforests which give way to coniferous forests and then bamboo forests.
        • The forest zone is found at the mid altitude because it is wetter.(2mks)
      3. Influence of human activities on forest distribution.
        •  People clear forests for fuel, to farm, mine, settle, construct road and for recreation activities.
        • Chemical used in farming eliminate certain trees that are already established.
        • Uses of fossils fuels and nuclear energy have polluted the environment.(2 mks)
    3. In Kenya exploitation is less mechanized while in Canada lumbering is highly mechanized.
      • In Kenya trees do not occur in pure stands while in Canada trees occur in pure stands.
      • In Kenya the forests have thick undergrowth while in Canada forests have little undergrowth.
      • In Kenya high temperatures ensure a faster rate of maturity of trees (20 – 30) years while in Canada low temperatures make trees to mature slowly (40 – 70) years.
      • In Kenya the tree species are heavy, bucky and difficult to exploit, while in Canada tree species are light and easy to exploit. 2 x 3 = (6 mks)
    4. Measure that have been taken to manage forests in Kenya.
      • Carrying out public campaigns in the mass media on the importance of forests.
      • Encouraging the use of alternative sources of fuel in order to reduce overdependent on wood fuel.
      • Forest guards and forest offices have been employed to guard against destruction of forests.
      • Facilities like roads, machinery, tractors and mills are being provided in order to improve forest management.
      • Wastes from forest products are being recycled in order to reduce wastage.
      • Training institutions dealing with forestry have been established eg. London Forestry Training College and Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) at Muguga.
      • Research is being carried out on the suitability of soils and the effects of pest and diseases on forests.
      • Forests reserves ie. Aberdares and Mau forest have been created.
      • The practice of agroforestry is being encouraged in Kenya.
      • Laws to govern the management of forests in Kenya have been emacted eg. Forest and water act. 2 x 4 = (8 mks)
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