Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 3 End Term 3 2022 Exams

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Answer ALL the questions in this section.

    1. Mention three factors that influence the occurrence of minerals (3marks)
    2. Name the minerals found in the following areas in East Africa.
      1. Kariandusi (1mark)
      2. Tororo (1mark)
    1. Give two social factors influencing agricultural activities in Africa (2marks)
    2. State three features of plantation agriculture (3marks)
    1. Name two hardwood tree species found in Kenya (2marks)
    2. Give three problems facing forestry in Kenya (3marks)
    1. State three conditions necessary for the growth of tea (3marks)
    2. Name two areas in the Eastern highlands of Kenya where tea is grown (2marks)
    1. State two uses of maize in Kenya (2marks)
    2. State three problems facing maize farmers in Kenya (3marks)

Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section

    1. A form three class carried out a field study on beef farming at Konza ranch.
      The results of their findings are summarized in the table below:-



      Short-horned Zebu




      Mature bulls










      1. Using the data in the table above draw proportional circles to represent the totals of the two breeds of Cattle (8marks)
      2. State three objectives the class formulated before going for the field study. (3marks)
      3. Prepare a questionnaire of four questions for collecting information in the ranch (4marks)
      1. Explain four problems facing beef farmers in Kenya (8marks)
      2. List two exotic breed reared in Kenya (2marks)
      1. State four conditions that are necessary for the growing of oil palm (4marks)
      2. Describe the stages involved in the harvesting and processing of oil palm fruits. (7marks)
      3. Apart from making oil, give four uses of oil palm tree (4marks)
    2. Explain four ways in which oil palm contributes to Nigerian’s economy (8marks)
    3. Give two problems oil palm farmers in Nigeria experience (2marks)
    1. What is market gardening (2marks)
    2. Describe the characteristics of market gardening (3marks)
      1. Horticulture is more developed in the Netherlands than in Kenya. Give four reasons for this (4marks)
      2. Explain four ways in which Kenya has benefited from horticultural farming (8marks)
    4. Explain four problems experienced by Horticultural farmers in Kenya (8marks)
    1. Name four oil-producing counties in the middle East (4marks)
    2. Draw a well-labelled diagram to show the occurrence of oil in the rock structure and the location of an oil derrick (5marks)
      1. Kenya is a potential oil producer.
        Name three by-products she is likely to get when the crude oil is mined and refined (3marks)
      2. Explain four benefits Kenya is likely to get from oil when it will be mined (8marks)
    4. List five problems Kenya is likely to experience in mining crude oil (5marks)
      1. What agroforestry? (1mark)
      2. Explain four reasons why agroforestry is being encouraged in Kenya (8marks)
    2. Give two examples of softwood trees found in Kenya (2marks)
    3. Explain four characteristics of softwood forests in Canada (8marks)
    4. Explain three problems that affect forestry in Canada (6marks)


    1. Factors that influence the occurrence of minerals
      • Vulcanicity 
      • Erosion
      • Weathering 
      • Sedimentation
      • Evaporation
      • Metamorphism (3x1= 3marks)
      1. Kariadusi - Diatomite (1x1= 1mark)
      2. Totoro - Limestone or Phosphate (1x1= 1mark)
    1.  Social factors influencing agricultural activities in Africa
      • Traditional and culture
      • Ownership and inheritance of land
      • Religion (2x1= 2marks)
    2. Features of plantation agriculture
      • Crops are usually raised on large estates of more than 40hectares/100acres
      • Most large estates are owned by foreign companies
      • Establishment and maintenance of the estates requires large sums of money.(3x1= 3marks)
    1. Hardwood species found in Kenya
      • Meru oak
      • Elgon olive
      • Elgon teak
      • Cedar
      • Mvuli
      • Mangrove (2x1= 2marks)
    2. Problems facing forestry in Kenya
      • Occurrence of forest fires
      • Pests such as aphids and diseases that destroy trees
      • Overgrazing
      • Debarking of trees
      • Over exploitation
      • Conflicts in land use
      • Excision (3x1= 3marks)
    1. Conditions necessary for growth of tea
      • Cool to warm temperatures averaging 21ºC during growing season
      • Altitude raging from 1000m to 1700m above sea level
      • Deep well drained and slightly acidic soils
      • Areas shielded from strong sunlight and violent winds
      • Cheap labour during preparation, weeding, pruning and picking (3x1= 3marks)
      • Nyambene hills in Nyambene
      • Nyeri
      • Thika
      • Murang’a
      • Maragua
      • Kiambu (2x1= 2marks)
    1. Uses of maize in Kenya
      • It is a staple food for Kenyans
      • Stalks, leaves and other remains from the maize cobs are used to feed domestic animals
      • Stalks and cobs are used to provide domestic fuel
      • Grains are used in manufacturing of corn oil and animal feeds (2x1= 2marks)
    2. Problems facing maize farmers in Kenya
      • High cost of farm inputs e.g. fertilizers
      • Unstable/fluctuating prices
      • Prolonged drought or unfavourable weather conditions
      • Flooding of the market by cheap imports from COMESA countries
      • Pests e.g. weevils and diseases i.e. Maize stalkborer
      • Monoculture leading to soil exhaustion
      • Poor marketing strategies (3x1= 3marks)
        • Short-horned Zebu
          Total is 450
          √450 ≈ 21.2
        • Boran
          Total is 900
          √900 ≈ 30
          Scale: 1cm represents 6units
          Radii for short-horned
          21.2 = 3.5cm
          Radii for boran
          30 = 5cm
        • Short-horned Zebu
          ZEBU JAGUYAS
          • Calves 80/450 x 3600 = 640
          • Cows 250/450 x 3600 = 2000
          • Nature bulls 120/450 x 3600 = 960
        • Boran
          • Calves 250/900 x 3600 = 1000
          • Cows 400/900 x 3600 = 1600
          • Nature bulls 250/900 x 3600 = 1000
      2. Three objectives the class formulated before going to the field
        • To find out the total number of beef cattle kept in the Konza ranch.
        • To find out the type of pasture used to feed the cattle.
        • To find out which breed is dominant at the Konza ranch. (1x 3= 3marks)
      3. Questionnaire
        • Where do you sell your beef cattle?
        • How many times per year do you market your beef cattle?
        • What is the size of Konza ranch?
        • After the cows deliver do you milk them?
        • Any other relevant question (1x4= 4marks)
      1. Four problems facing beef farmers in Kenya
        • Prolonged drought – Leads to insufficient pastures
        • Pest such as ticks – Leads to death/ weak animals.
        • Marketing problem – leads to low prices for the beef.
        • Poor pastures – Leads to emaciated /weak animals.
        • Poor infrastructure – Animals loss weight when being taken to the market.
        • Competition from other types of meat – Hence low prices/ farmers loose moral.
          (Explain each) (2x4= 8marks)
        • Aberdare Angus
        • Hereford
        • Galloway
        • Short-horned (1x2= 2marks)
      1. Four conditions that are necessary for the growing of oil palm
        • High rainfall which is well distributed throughout the year.
        • High temperatures throughout the year.
        • Fertile soil which are well drained
        • Trees should be planted around the plots to protect the crop from strong wind.
        • Enough capital to pay workers and maintain feeder roads and vehicles(1x4= 4marks)
      2. Stages involved in harvesting oil palm:-
        • Oil palm fruits are harvested 3 years after planting
        • Ripe fruits are cut using curved knives
        • Fruits should be harvested every 5-10days.
        • After harvesting the fruits must be quickly transferred to the processing factory.
      3. Stages involved in processing:-
        • At the factory, fruits are weighed.
        • Fruits are put into tube-like cages or trucks.
        • The tube-like cages or trucks passed through hot steam to sterilize the fruits.
        • Fruits are taken to stripping machine to remove their stalks and separated from any other unwanted materials.
        • Fruits put in digesters for further cooking to soften them into pulp.
        • Pulp is separated from the kernel
        • The pulp is pressed to extract the oil.
        • Kernel is ground to remove the shells and extract oil. (1x7= 7marks)
      4. Use of oil palm tree
        • Leaves used for thatching houses
        • Leaf-ribs provide building materials
        • Old trees-trucks sap is tapped to make beer
        • Shell and rib are used as fuel
        • Leaves are used in making brooms, hats and mats.
    2. Four ways in which oil palm contribute to Nigerian Economy:-
      • Create employment – Farmers improve their living standards.
      • Earns foreign exchange – Used to develop other sectors of the economy.
      • Raw materials to related industries – leads to industrial development.
      • Enhance development of infrastructure
      • Provide cheap building materials
      • (Explain any 4) (4x2= 8marks)
    3. Two problems oil palm farmers in Nigeria experience:-
      • Prolonged drought
      • Concentration by farmers on food crops than oil palm
      • Diseases such as anthrax nose and blast
      • Poor management of producer boards and co-operative societies. (2x1= 2marks)
    1. Market gardening
      • Cultivation of fruits and vegetables near a market centre to feed the local market. (2marks)
    2. Four characteristics of markets gardening:-
      • Farm generally small in size due to limitation land
      • Land intensively farmed to maximize production
      • Advanced scientific techniques of crop production
      • Labour intensive
      • Continuous application of manure and fertilizer
      • Feed the local market (3x1=3marks)
      1. Four reasons why horticultural is more developed in Netherlands than in Kenya.
        • High local demand for horticultural products in Netherlands than in Kenya.
        • Netherland has a long experience in horticulture than in Kenya.
        • Markets strategy in Netherlands is more organized than in Kenya.
        • Netherlands has better and improved infrastructure than Kenya.
        • Netherland is centrally located within a rich region to market horticultures than in Kenya.
          (4x1= 4marks)
      2. Four ways in which Kenya has benefited from horticultural:-
        • Provide food to many people
        • Creates employment hence people improve their living standards.
        • Raw materials for related industries hence establishment of many industries.
        • Earn foreign exchange which is used to develop other sectors.
        • Enhance development of infrastructure
          (Any four explained) (4x2= 8marks)
    4. Four problems experienced by horticultural farmers in Kenya.
      • Prolonged drought which lowers yields
      • Poor marketing strategies hence low prices
      • Limited local markets hence most produce goes to waste.
      • Inadequate capital to buy the farm inputs, and pay the works
      • Poor infrastructure
      • Pests e.g. aphids and diseases e.g. Bacterial wilt.
        (4x2= 8marks)
      • Iran
      • Iraq
      • Saudi Arabia
      • Kuwait
      • Yeman
      • U.A.E.
      • Qatar
      • Bahran
      • Oman (4x1= 4marks)
    2. Diagram
      (5x1= 5marks)
        • Bitumen
        • Wax
        • Sulphur
        • Lubricants
        • Petrochemicals (3x1=3marks)
      2. Explain four benefits Kenya is likely to get from oil.
        • Creation of employment. The unemployment rate in Kenya will drop.
        • Cheap oil products. This will lead to low prices of some commodities.
        • Enhanced develop infrastructure
        • Earn foreign exchange. This will lead to the development of the economy.
        • Raw materials to industries.this leads to development of other industries.
          Explain (4x2= 8marks)
    4. Five problems Kenya is likely to experience in mining
      • Shortage of capital
      • Limited skills and technology
      • May cause civil conflict if not well managed.
      • Companies involved in exploitation of oil are foreign owned leading to reputation of profits
      • Air pollution (5x1= 5meks)
      1. Agroforestry is a system of agriculture which involves intercropping of trees and crops. (1mark)
      2. Four reasons why agroforestry is encouraged in Kenya:-
        • Supply of fuel to the farmer
        • Supply timber to the farmer
        • Create employment opportunity
        • Protect soil from erosion
        • Raise water table
        • Create scenic beauty
        • Conserve environment
        • (Any four well explained) (4x2= 8marks)
    2. two examples of softwood trees found in Kenya
      • Cypress
      • Pine
      • Podo
      • Kenya Cedar (Juniper)
      • Bamboo (2x1= 2marks)
    3. Four characteristics of softwood forests in Canada
      • Conical in shape
      • Pure stand
      • Needle-like leaves
      • Flexible branches
      • Evergreen
      • Shallow rooted (4x2= 8marks)
    4. Three problems that affect forestry in Canada
      • Severe winter
      • Rugged landscape
      • Wild fire
      • Pests and diseases such as a aphid
      • Over exploitation
      • (Any four well explained) ( 3x2)m =m6
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