How are the leaves of higher plants adapted to their functions? - KCSE biology essays

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Broad and flattened lamina; to increase surface area; for absorption of light;

Thin blade; to reduce distance for diffusion of gases and penetration of light waves;

Transparent epidermis and cuticle; to allow light to penetrate to tissues;

Cuticle layer absent on stomata; to allow for gaseous exchange;

One-cell thick epidermal layer; to reduce the distance over which sunlight penetrates;

Palisade cells have numerous chloroplasts containing chlorophyll; to trap maximum amounts of light energy;

Have stomata on the epidermis; to allow for gaseous exchange; and control of water loss through transpiration;

Palisade layer have elongated cells located at right angles to the leaf surface; for maximum absorption of light energy;

Spongy mesophyll; consists of spherical and loosely-packed cells; to create air spaces; which communicate with the atmosphere through
stomata; for purposes of gaseous exchange and control of water loss;

Veins have conducting tissues: xylem; for movement of water and dissolved mineral salts; phloem; for translocation of
manufactured food;

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