Biology Notes Form 1 - Form 4 notes PDF (100)

This section contains all biology notes, summarized from form 1 to form 4. It also contains topical revision questions from form 1 to form 4. Moreover, there are also all the key biology essays with answers for KCSE and MOCKS preparation. These biology notes are FREE to access on the EasyElimu Study App. Also, get any of the biology notes, topical revision questions, or KCSE-MOCKS essay questions in PDF format.

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Biology Notes Form 1

Biology Notes Form 1 (5)

For the preparation of national and local exams, get the entire biology Form 1 syllabus for free. These biology form 1 notes are aggregated from the various high school approved text books, including KLB biology form 1, Finder biology form 1, etc. The biology notes cover various topics, as shown below. 

The form 1 biological concepts that you can learn using our notes include;

  1. An Introduction to Biology
  2. Classification 1
  3. The cell
  4. Cell Physiology
  5. Nutrition in plants and animals 

You can get the notes for free without having to pay a cent on our Easy Elimu Study App, which you can get from the Google Playstore here

As a bonus, each topic has summarized notes, so you won’t have to stress over writing that mwakenya, which makes passing that summative biology form 1 term 3 exam easy. Whether it’s term 1, 2 or 3, these free biology form 1 summary notes will give you that grade A.

Chapter 1: Summarized notes on introduction to biology

To biology

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • Definition of Biology - What is Biology?
  • Branches of Biology
  • Importance of biology
  • Characteristics of Living Organisms
    • Nutrition
    • Respiration
    • Gaseous Exchange
    • Excretion
    • Growth and Development
    • Reproduction
    • Irritability
    • Movement
  • Collection of Specimen
    • Sweep net
    • Fish net
    • Pooter
    • Bait trap
    • Pit fall trap
    • Pair of forceps
    • Specimen bottles
    • Magnifying lens
    • Precautions During Collection and Observation of Specimen
  • Comparison Between Plants and Animals

Chapter 2: Summarized notes on classification 1

 Kingdom 1

This topic covers various subtopics including;

  • Introduction
  • External features used in classification
    • External features of plants used in classification
    • External features of animals used in classification
  • Importance of Classification
  • Historical background of Classification
  • Taxonomic Units of Classification
  • Scientific Naming of Living Organisms
  • Rules of Binomial Nomenclature
    • Origin of Scientific Names

Chapter 3: Summarized notes on the cell

the cell

This topic covers various subtopics including;

  • Introduction
  • The Light Microscope
    • Parts of a Microscope
    • Handling and Care of the Microscope
    • How to use the Microscope
  • Cell Structures as seen under the Light and Electron Microscope
    • Cell Structure under Light Microscope
    • The Cell as seen under the Electron Microscope
  • Structure and Functions of the Cell Organelles
  • Comparison between Plant Cells and Animal Cells
  • Cell Specialization/Cell Differentiation
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ System

Chapter 4: Summarized notes on cell physiology

phisio 1

This topic covers various subtopics including;

  • Introduction
  • Structure of the Membrane
  • Properties of the cell membrane
  • Physiological Processes of the Cell membrane
  • Diffusion
    • Demonstration of the Process of Diffusion using Potassium Manganate (VII)
    • The Role of Diffusion in Living Organisms
    • Factors Affecting the Rate of Diffusion
  • Osmosis
    • Demonstration of Osmosis Using a Visking Tubing
    • Explanation of Osmosis, Osmotic Pressure & Osmotic Potential
    • Water Relations in Animals
    • Water Relations in Plants
    • Role of Osmosis in Organisms
    • Factors Affecting the Rate of Osmosis
  • Active Transport
    • Role of active transport in living organisms
    • Factors affecting the rate of Active Transport

Chapter 5: Summarized notes on nutrition in plants and animals

nutri

This topic covers various subtopics including;

  • Introduction
    • Modes of Nutrition
  • Autotropism
    • Importance of Photosynthesis
    • External Leaf Structure
    • Internal Leaf Structure
    • Adaptations of the Leaf to Photosynthesis
    • Raw Materials for Photosynthesis
    • Conditions for Photosynthesis
    • Photosynthesis Process
    • Testing for Starch in a Leaf
    • Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis
    • Experiment to Investigate the Gas Produced During Photosynthesis
    • Experiments on Factors Necessary for Photosynthesis
  • Chemicals of Life
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Enzymes
  • Heterotrophism
    • Modes of Heterotrophism
    • Dentition
    • Classes of Holozoic Heterotrophs
    • Dental Formula
    • Dental Diseases
    • Dental Hygiene
  • Digestion
    • Digestion in the Mouth
    • Digestion in the Stomach
    • Digestion in the Ileum
    • Absorption
    • Egestion
    • Assimilation
  • Importance of Vitamins, Mineral Salts, Roughage and Water in Human Nutrition
  • Factors affecting energy requirements in humans

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KCSE-MOCKS Biology essays Questions and Answers

KCSE-MOCKS Biology essays Questions and Answers (66)

For the preparation of national and local exams, get all biology essays with answers here. These biology essay questions are aggregated from all the KCSE examinations. Unique essay questions are also from Form 4 Mock past papers. The biology essays cover all topics from form 1 to form 4.

This category contains all biology essay questions with answers to help with your high school exam revision. Study the most commonly asked biology essays in preparation for KCSE or MOCK examinations.

You can get access to the notes for free without having to pay a cent on the EasyElimu Study App, which you can get from the Google Playstore here.

As a bonus, each KCSE-MOCKS biology essay question is fully answered. The answers are summarized but fully explained, so you won’t have to stress over writing that mwakenya, which makes passing that biology exam easy. Whether it’s form 1, 2, 3, or 4, term 1, 2, or 3, these free biology essay questions and answers pdf will give you that grade A.

Visit the EasyElimu App to get the answers to the KCSE-MOCKS Biology essays questions for free.
Alternatively, click the blue download button on this page to download, in PDF format, the specific KCSE-MOCKS Biology essays questions with answers

All the Key Biology Essay Questions

  1. Explain the various ways in which a typical cell is adapted to its functions-KCSE Biology Essays
  2. Explain how the various specialized cells are modified to carry out their functions in plants and animals - KCSE biology essays
  3. Describe how the mammalian body protects itself against infections -KCSE biology essays
  4. How are the leaves of higher plants adapted to their functions? - KCSE biology essays
  5. Explain how the various teeth adapt mammals for nutrition - KCSE biology essays
  6. Describe the process of urine formation in the mammalian kidneys - KCSE Biology Essays
  7. Explain the role of the following hormones during homeostasis - KCSE Biology Essays
  8. Distinguish between Diabetes mellitus and Diabetes insipidus - KCSE Biology Essays
  9. Explain how the various abiotic factors may affect plants - KCSE Biology Essays
  10. Discuss the causes, effects and control measures for water pollution - KCSE Biology Essays
  11. How are xerophytes and hydrophytes adapted to their habitats? - KCSE Biology Essays
  12. Outline the differences between wind and insect pollinated flowers - KCSE Biology Essays
  13. Describe what happens in a flower from the time of pollination up to the time of seed and fruit development - KCSE Biology Essays
  14. Discuss the adaptations of the female reproductive system of humans - KCSE Biology Essays
  15. Describe the process of gaseous exchange in terrestrial plants - KCSE Biology Essays
  16. How is the mammalian gaseous exchange system adapted to its functions? - KCSE Biology Essays
  17. Describe the structure and function of the mammalian skin - KCSE Biology Essays
  18. Describe the role of the following hormones in the menstrual cycle - KCSE Biology Essays
    1. Luteinising Hormone (LH)
    2. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    3. Oestrogen
    4. Progesterone
  19. Growth and development - KCSE Biology Essays
    1. What is secondary growth?
    2. Describe the process of secondary thickening in a woody stem
  20.  Explain how the following blood cells are adapted to their functions - KCSE Biology Essays
  21. Discuss Lamarck’s and Darwin’s theories of evolution - KCSE Biology Essays
  22. Natural Selection - KCSE Biology Essays
    1. What is natural selection?
    2. Discuss three examples of natural selection in action
  23. Discuss the various mechanisms of opening and closing of stomata - KCSE Biology Essays
  24. Describe the process of mitosis - KCSE Biology Essays
  25. Describe the adaptations of Schistosoma spp to their parasitic mode of life - KCSE Biology Essays
  26.                        
    1. What is meant by the term symbiosis? - KCSE Biology Essays
    2. Describe five types of symbiotic relationships in a natural ecosystem - KCSE Biology Essays
  27. Discuss the various ways employed by preys to avoid the predators - KCSE Biology Essays
  28. Describe the nitrogen cycle - KCSE Biology Essays
  29. Describe how the various supportive tissues in plants adapt them to their habitats - KCSE Biology Essays
  30. Why is locomotion necessary in higher animals? - KCSE Biology Essays
  31.                
    1. What is digestion? - KCSE Biology Essays
    2. What is the importance of a balance diet in human nutrition? - KCSE Biology Essays
  32. Explain how the process of evolution may result to the formation of a new species - KCSE Biology Essays
  33. Discuss the role of the various hormones in plant growth and development - KCSE Biology Essays
  34. How is the mammalian eye adapted to its functions? KCSE Biology Essays
  35.                              
    1. What is transpiration? - KCSE Biology Essays
    2. Explain how the various environmental factors affect the rate of transpiration - KCSE Biology Essays
  36. Distinguish between mutations, mutants and mutagens - KCSE Biology Essays
  37. How are seeds and fruits of plants adapted to their mode of dispersal? - KCSE Biology Essays
  38. Discuss the composition and functions of mammalian blood - KCSE Biology Essays
  39. Describe the adaptations of the nervous system to its functions - KCSE Biology Essays
  40. State the economic importance of members of Monera and Fungi and for each economic importance name a suitable or appropriate organism - KCSE Biology Essays
  41. Discuss the structure and functions of the various muscle tissues found in humans - KCSE Biology Essays
  42. Discuss the adaptations of the male reproductive system of humans - KCSE Biology Essays
  43. Explain the factors that affect enzyme activity - KCSE Biology Essays
  44. Explain why the following conditions are necessary for photosynthesis - KCSE Biology Essays
    1. Carbon (IV) Oxide
    2. Light
    3. Chlorophyll
    4. Suitable temperature and pH
    5. Water
  45. Describe the route taken by water from the soil up to the evaporating surface of a plant - KCSE Biology Essays
  46. How is the mammalian heart adapted to its functions? - KCSE Biology Essays
  47. Describe how the following vertebrae are adapted to their functions - KCSE Biology Essays
    1. Atlas
    2. Axis
    3. Lumbar
    4. Thoracic
  48.                    
    1. What is a reflex action?
    2. Outline the activities that occur in the body when one touches a hot object
  49. Discuss the various ways in which anaerobic respiration is utilized in industries and homes - KCSE Biology Essays

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Biology Notes Form 2

Biology Notes Form 2 (4)

For the preparation of national and local exams, get the entire biology Form 2 syllabus for free. These biology form 2 notes are aggregated from the various high school approved text books, including KLB biology form 2, Finder biology form 2, etc. The biology notes cover various topics, as shown below.  

The form 2 biological concepts that you can learn using our notes include; 

  1. Transport in plants and animals.
  2. Respiration.
  3. Gaseous exchange.
  4. Excretion and homeostasis.

You can get the notes for free without having to pay a cent on our Easy Elimu Study App, which you can get from the Google Playstore here

As a bonus, each topic has summarized notes, so you won’t have to stress over writing that mwakenya, which makes passing that biology form 2 term 3 exam easy. Whether it’s term 1, 2 or 3, these free biology form 2 summary notes will give you that grade A.

Chapter 1: Summarized notes on transport in plants and animals

1

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • Introduction
  • Transport in Plants
    • Internal Structure of Roots and Root Hairs
    • Internal structure of a Root Hair Cell
    • The Stem
    • Absorption of Water and Mineral Salts
  • Transpiration
    • Structure and Function of Xylem
    • Forces Involved in Transportation of Water and Mineral Salts
    • Importance of Transpiration
    • Factors Affecting Transpiration
  • Translocation of Organic Compounds
    • Phloem
  • Transport in Animals
    • The Circulatory System
    • Transport in Insects
  • Mammalian Circulatory System
    • Structure and Function of the Heart
    • Pumping Mechanism of the Heart
    • Structure and Function of Arteries, Capillaries and Veins
    • Diseases and Defects of Circulatory System
  • Structure and Function of Blood
    • Composition of Blood
    • ABO Blood Groups
    • Blood Transfusion
    • Lymphatic System
  • Immune Responses
    • Types of Immunity
    • Importance of Vaccination
    • Allergic Reactions

Chapter 2: Summarized notes on respiration.

2

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • Meaning and Significance of Respiration
  • Tissue Respiration
    • Mitochondrion Structure and Function
    • Aerobic Respiration
    • Anaerobic Respiration
    • Practical Activities
    • Comparison Between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
    • Comparison Between Energy Output in Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
    • Substrates for Respiration
    • Application of Anaerobic Respiration in Industry and at Home

Chapter 3: Summarized notes on gaseous exchange.

3

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • Necessity for Gaseous Exchange in Living Organisms
  • Gaseous Exchange in Plants
    • Structure of Guard Cells
    • Mechanism of Opening and Closing of Stomata
    • Process of Gaseous Exchange in Root, Stem and Leaves of Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants
    • Gaseous Exchange Through Stems
    • Gaseous Exchange in Roots
  • Gaseous Exchange in Animals
    • Types and Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
    • Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
    • Gaseous Exchange in Amoeba
    • Gaseous Exchange in Insects
    • Gaseous Exchange in Bony Fish (e.g, Tilapia)
    • Gaseous Exchange in Amphibians - Frog
    • Gaseous Exchange in a Mammal -Human
    • Dissection of a Small Mammal (Rabbit) to Show Respiratory Organs
  • Diseases of the Respiratory System
  • Practical Activities

Chapter 4: Summarized notes on excretion and homeostasis.

4 aiuhda

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • Introduction
    • Excretion
    • Egestion
    • Secretion
    • Homeostasis
  • Excretion in Plants
    • Plant Excretory Products their Source and Uses
  • Excretory Products in Animals
  • Excretion and Homeostasis in Unicellular Organisms
  • Excretion in Human Beings
    • Structure and Function of the Human Skin
    • Structure and Functions of the Kidneys
    • Common Kidney Diseases
    • Role of Liver in Excretion
    • Common Liver Diseases
  • Homeostasis
    • Neuro-Endocrine System and Homeostasis
    • The Skin and Temperature Regulation
    • Homeostatic Control of Body Temperature in Humans
    • Behavioural and Physiological Responses to Temperature Changes
    • The Skin and Osmoregulation
    • The Kidney and Osmoregulation
    • The Liver

After you are done reading the summarized notes, you can test yourself with our biology form 2 questions and answers, which you can access here.
Moreover, if you are having a problem with a specific topic or want to practice more, you can practice with our biology Form 2 topical questions and answers, which you can access here.

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Biology Notes Form 3

Biology Notes Form 3 (4)

For the preparation of national and local exams, get the entire biology Form 3 syllabus for free. These biology form 3 notes are aggregated from the various high school approved text books, including KLB biology form 3, Finder biology form 3, etc. The biology notes cover various topics, as shown below. 

The form 3 biological concepts that you can learn using our notes include; 

  1. Classification 2
  2. Ecology
  3. Reproduction in plants and animals
  4. Growth and development

You can get the notes for free without having to pay a cent on our Easy Elimu Study App, which you can get from the Google Playstore here

As a bonus, each topic has summarized notes, so you won’t have to stress over writing that mwakenya, which makes passing that biology form 3 term 3 exam easy. Whether it’s term 1, 2 or 3, these free biology form 3 summary notes will give you that grade A.

Chapter 1: Summarized notes on classification 2

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • General Principles of Classification
  • Binomial Nomenclature
  • General Characteristics of Kingdoms
    • Kingdom Monera
    • Kingdom Protoctista
    • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Plantae
    • Division Bryophyta
    • Division Pteridophyta
    • Division Spermatophyta
  • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum Arthropoda
    • Phylum Chordata
  • Construction and Use of Dichotomous Keys 
    • Rules Used to Construct a Dichotomous Key
    • Some Common Features Used for Identification
  • Practical Activities
    • To Examine Bryophyta
    • To Examine Pteridophyta
    • To Examine Spermatophyta
    • Examination of Arthropoda
    • Examination of Chordata

Chapter 2: Summarized notes on ecology

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • Introduction
  • Concepts and Terms Used in Ecology
    • Habitat
    • Niche
    • Population
    • Dispersion
    • Community
    • The Ecosystem
    • Biomass
    • Carrying Capacity
  • Factors in an Ecosystem
    • Abiotic Factors (Environmental Factors)
    • Biotic Factors
  • Inter-relationships Between Organisms
    • Producers:
    • Consumers
    • Competition
    • Predation
    • Saprophytism
    • Parasitism
    • Symbiosis
    • Nitrogen Cycle
  • Energy Flow in an Ecosystem
    • Food Chains
    • Food Web
    • Decomposers
    • Pyramid of Numbers
    • Pyramid of Biomass
  • Population Estimation Methods
    • Quadrat Method
    • Line Transect
    • Belt Transect
    • Capture-recapture Method
  • Adaptations of Plants to Various Habitats
    • Xerophytes
    • Mesophytes
    • Hydrophytes (Water Plants)
    • Halophytes (Salt Plants)
  • Pollution
    • Effects and Control of causes of Pollutants in Air, Water and Soil
  • Human Diseases
    • Bacterial Diseases
    • Protozoa Diseases
    • Parasitic Diseases 
  • Practical Activities
    • Adaptions to Habitat
    • Comparison of Root Nodules from Fertile and Poor Soils - Root Nodules
    • Estimation of Population using Sampling Methods

Chapter 3: Summarized notes on reproduction in plants and animals

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • Introduction
  • Cell Division
    • Mitosis
    • Meiosis
  • Asexual Reproduction
  • Types of Asexual Reproduction.
  • Sexual Reproduction in Plants
    • Structure of a Flower
    • Pollination
    • Fertilisation in Plants
    • Fruit Formation
    • Placentation
    • Methods of Fruit and Seed Dispersal
  • Reproduction in Animals
    • Reproduction in Humans
    • Fertilisation in Animals
    • Implantation
    • Role of Placenta
    • Gestation Period
    • Reproductive Hormones
    • Secondary Sexual Characteristics
    • Menstrual Cycle
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections (STl)
  • Advantages of Asexual Reproduction
  • Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction
  • Advantages of Sexual Reproduction
  • Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction
  • Practical Activities

Chapter 4: Summarized notes on growth and development

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • Concept of Growth and Development
  • Measurement of Growth
    • Lag Phase (slow growth)
    • Exponential Phase (log phase)
    • Decelerating Phase
    • Plateau Phase
  • Growth and Development in Plants
    • Structure of the Seed
    • Dormancy in Seeds
    • Seed Germination
    • Primary and Secondary Growth
    • Role of Growth Hormones in Plants
    • Apical Dominance
  • Growth and Development in Animals
  • Growth and Development in Insects
    • Role of Hormones in Insect Metamorphosis

After you are done reading the summarized notes, you can test yourself with our biology form 3 questions and answers, which you can access here.
Moreover, if you are having a problem with a specific topic or want to practice more, you can practice with our biology Form 3 topical questions and answers, which you can access here.

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Biology Form 1 Topical Revision Questions and Answers

Biology Form 1 Topical Revision Questions and Answers (5)

For the preparation of national and local exams, get biology form 1 topical revision questions with answers for free. These biology topical revision questions are aggregated from the various high school KICD approved textbooks, including KLB biology form 1, Finder biology form 1, Mentors biology form 1, Spotlight biology form 1, Moran biology form 1, Pearsons biology form 1, etc. The biology topical revision questions with answers cover various topics, as shown below.

The form 1 biological concepts that you can revise with these topical revision questions include;

  1. An Introduction to Biology
  2. Classification 1
  3. The cell
  4. Cell Physiology
  5. Nutrition in plants and animals 

You can get the topical revision questions for free without having to pay a cent on our EasyElimu Study App, which you can get from the Google Playstore here.

As a bonus, if you need to refresh your knowledge on a topic, EasyElimu has summarized notes, so you won’t have to stress over looking for notes, which makes passing that summative biology form 1 term 3 exam easy. Whether it’s term 1, 2 or 3, these free biology form 1 revision topical questions will give you that grade A.

Visit the EasyElimu App to get the answers to the topical revision questions for free.
Alternatively, click the blue download notes button on this page to download in PDF format the specific topical revision questions with answers

Questions per topic

Introduction to Biology Questions and Answers - Form 1 Biology Topical Revision

  1. Write three major differences between plants and animals.
  2. List the uses of the energy obtained from the process of respiration.
  3. State three characteristic similar in plants and animals.
  4. Motor vehicles move, use energy and produce carbon dioxide and water. Similar characteristics occur in living organisms yet motor vehicles are not classified as living. List other characteristics of living things that do NOT occur in motor vehicles.

Classification 1 Questions and Answers - Form 1 Biology Topical Revision

  1.  
    1. What is meant by the term binomial nomenclature? (1 mk)
    2. Give two reasons why classification is important. (2 mks)
  2. Explain the following terms; (3 mks)
    1. Classification
    2. Taxonomy
    3. Binomial nomenclature.
  3. Ascaris lumbricoides is an example of an endoparasite. The name Ascaris refers to
  4. Black jack (Bidens pilosa) belong to the family compositae. What does pilosa stand for? (1 mk)
  5. Define the term species. (1mk)
  6. Distinguish between Taxonomy and taxon. (1mk)
  7. Give two characteristics that distinguish scientific names of organisms from the ordinary names  
  8. Name the branch of Biology that deals with the study of animals
  9. The scientific name of a rat is Rattus norvegicus
    1. Write the name correctly
    2. Identify the genus and species names 

The Cell Questions and Answers - Form 1 Biology Topical Revision

  1. Which organelle would be abundant in?
    1. Skeletal muscle cell 
    2. Palisade cell
  2. State the functions of the following organelles.
    1. Lysosomes
    2. Ribosomes
  3. Name the organelles that perform each of the following functions in a cell.
    1. Protein synthesis
    2. Transport cell secretions
  4. The diagram below represents a cell.

    diagram represents cell
    1. Name the parts labeled x and y
    2. Suggest why the structures labeled x would be more on one side than the other side.
  5.  
    1. State the function of cristae in mitochondria (1mk)
    2. The diagram below represents a cell organelle

      cell organelle

      1. Name the part labeled Y (1mk)
      2. State the function of the part labeled X (2 mks)
  6.  
    1. What is the formula for calculating linear magnification of a specimen when using a hand lens? (1mk)
    2. Give a reason why staining is necessary when preparing specimens for observation under the microscope. (1mk)
  7. State three functions of Golgi apparatus. (3mks)
  8. Name two structures found in plant cell but are absent in animals cell.
  9. Write the adaptation and role of the following cells.
    1. Nerve cell
    2. Palisade cell
    3. Root hair cell
    4. Red blood cell
  10. The diameter field of view of a light microscopic is 3.5mm. Plant cells lying of the diameter are 10. Determine the size of one cell microns (1mm = 1000μm)
  11. Define the following
    1. Tissue
    2. Organ
    3. Organ system
  12. Name the organelles that perform each of the following functions:
    1. Digestion and destruction of worn out organelles.
    2. Osmoregulation
  13. Explain why the following processes are important during the preparation of temporary slides
    1. Staining
    2. Use of a sharp cutting blade
  14. In a class experiment to establish the size of an onion cell, a leaner observed the following on the microscope field of view of 4mm. If the student counted 20 cells across the diameter of this field of view, calculate the size of one cell in micrometers.
    cells in a field of view
  15. State the functions of the following cell organelles:
    1. Nucleolus.
    2. Plasma membrane
  16. What is the of nucleus of a cell made up of?
  17.  
    1. In a laboratory exercise a student observing a drop of pond water under a microscope saw and drew a spirogyra. If the magnification of the eye-piece was x5 and that of the objective lens was x100, what was the magnification of the spirogyra?
    2. If the spirogyra has a length of 5cm at the above magnification, calculate the actual length in micrometers
  18.  
    1. Identify the organelle shown below:- 
      organelle to name
    2. How is the organelle you have identified in (a) above suited to its function
  19. Identify the structures of the cells that perform the following functions:-
    1. Synthesize ribosomes
    2. Regulate exchange of substances in and out of the nucleus
  20.  
    1. State the roles of enzyme catalase in living cells
    2. Which factor inactivates enzyme?
  21. The figure below represents a certain cell organelle:-

    certain cell organelle

    1.  
      1. Identify the cell organelle
      2. What is the function of the part labelled A
    2. Name the organelles that perform each of the following functions;
      1. Osmoregulation in amoeba
      2. Carries out digestion and destruction of worn out cell organelles
  22. State three properties of the cell membrane
  23. The diagram below represents a plant cell
    plant cell
    1. Name a carbohydrate which forms part of the structure labelled S
    2. State two functions of the part labelled R
    3. Name two structures present in the diagram but absent in the animal cell
  24. What do you understand by the following terms
    1. Anatomy
    2. Biochemistry
  25. State the function of the following parts of a cell
    representation of a cell
    1. Ribosome
    2. Chloroplasts
  26. What is the formula for calculating linear magnification of a specimen when using a hand lens
  27. State the function of the following cell structures:-
    1. Ribosome
    2. Centrioles ;
  28. What is the main structural component of:-
    1. Cell wall
    2. Cell membrane
  29. The diagram below represents a cell
    1. Name parts labelled X and Y
    2. Suggest why the structures labelled X would be more on one side than the other
  30. During a practical class, form fours estimated the field of view to be 3.5mm. Using the low power objective, they observed spirogyra cells across the same field of view and counted 8cells. Calculate the size of each cell and give your answer in micrometer.
  31.  Distinguish between the following terms :-
    1. Magnification and resolution of a microscope
    2. Mounting and staining of a specimen
  32. Name the organelle that performs each of the following functions in a cell.
    1. Transport of packaged glycoproteins
    2. Destruction of worn out cell organelles
    3. Synthesis of proteins
  33. Why are the following procedures done when preparing sections to be observed under a light microscope?
    1. Making of thin sections
    2. Using a sharp blade to make the sections
    3. Staining
  34. What are the functions of the following parts of a light microscope?
    1. Eye piece lens
    2. Condenser
    3. Diaphragm
  35. Given that the diameter of the field of view of a light microscope is 2000um. Calculate the size of a cell in mm if 10 cells occupy the diameter of the field of view
  36. State the importance of the following processes in microscopy:
    1. staining
    2. sectioning
  37. A cell was found to have the following under a light microscope; cell membrane, irregular in shape, and small vacuoles. Identify the type of the cell above
  38. State the functions of the following organelles;
    1. Lysosomes
    2. Golgi apparatus
  39. State the functions of each of the following parts in a microscope.
    1. The eye piece lens
    2. The objective lens
  40. The figure below represents an electron micrograph of an organelle that is found in many cells;
    electron micrograph photo
    1. Identify the organelle
    2. State the function of the organelle
    3. What is the importance of infoldings in the inner membrane.
    4. Give two examples of tissues where you would expect many such organelles in animal body.

Cell Physiology Questions and Answers - Form 1 Biology Topical Revision

  1. The table below shows the concentration of some ions in pond water and in the cells sap of an aquatic plant growing in the pond.

    Ions  Concentration in pond water (parts per million)  Concentration in cell sap (parts per million) 
    Sodium  50  30 
    Potassium  150 
    Calcium  1.5 
    Chloride  180  200 
    1. Name the processes by which the following ions could have been taken up by this plant. (2mks)
      1. Sodium ions
      2. Potassium ions
    2. For each processes named in (a) (i) and (ii) above, state one condition necessary for the process to take place. (2mks)
  2. Explain how water in the soil enters the root hairs of a plant. (4mks)
  3. Explain how drooping of leaves on a hot sunny day is advantageous to a plant. (2mks)
  4.  
    1. What is diffusion? (2mks)
    2. How do the following factors affect the rate of diffusion?
      1. Diffusion gradient (1mk)
      2. Surface area to volume ratio (1mk)
      3. Temperature (1mk)
    3. Outline 3 roles of active transport in the human body (2mks)
  5. State the importance of osmosis in plants (3mks)
  6. An experiment was set up as shown in the diagram below.
    sucrose solution osmosis
    The set up was left for 30 minutes.
    1. State the expected results. (1mk)
    2. Explain your answer in (a) above. (3mks)
  7. Explain why plant cells do not burst when immersed in distilled water. (2mks)
  8. Distinguish between diffusion and osmosis. (2mks)
  9. Define the following terms in relation to a cell
    1. Isotonic solution
    2. Hypotonic solution
    3. Hypertonic solution (3mks)
  10. Addition of large amounts of salt to soil in which plants are growing kills the plants. Explain. (6mks)
  11. Explain why
    1. Red blood cells burst when placed in distilled water while plant cells remain intact.
    2. Fresh water protozoa like amoeba do not burst when placed in distilled water. (2mks)
  12. Two equal strips A and B were from a potato whose cell was 30% of sugar. The strip A was placed in a solution of 10% sugar concentration while B was placed in 50% sugar concentration
    1. What change was expected in strip A and B
    2. Account for the change in strip A
  13. An experiment was set-up as shown below and left for one hour
    peeled potato
    1. State the expected result at the end of one hour
    2. Explain the observations made in this experiment
  14. State what would happen in each of the following:-
    1. A plant cell placed in: -
      1. Strong salt solution 
      2. Distilled water
  15. State three physiological processes that are involved in movement of substances across the cell membrane
  16. Potato cylinders were weighed and kept in distilled water overnight. They were then reweighed.
    potato cylinders
    1. Calculate the average mass of a potato cylinders after reweighing. Show your working.
    2. Explain why mass of the cylinders had increased.
  17. The diagrams below show a red blood cell that was subjected to a certain treatment.
    red blood cell after treatment
    1. Account for the shape of the cell at the end of the experiment.
    2. Draw a diagram to illustrate how a plant cell would appear if subjected to the same treatment.
  18. The diagram below shows the results obtained when red blood cells are placed in different solutions:
    red blood cell in different solutions
    1. What name is given to the process that occurs when the cell is placed in solution Y?
    2. Describe the process that would occur in a plant cell when placed in a similar solution as that of solution X
  19. The figure below shows the results obtained when red blood cells are put in different solutions:-
    red blood cell in different solutions2
    1. What is the name given to the process that occurs when the cell is put into solution B?
    2. Compare the results obtained when the cell is put in solution B to the results that would be obtained if a plant cell was put in the same solution.
  20. An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different concentrations of sodium chloride on human red blood cells. Equal amounts of blood were added to equal volumes of the salt solution but of different concentrations. The results are shown in the table below:

    Set -up

     

    Number of red blood cells

     

    Sodium chloride concentration

    At start of experiment

    At the end of the experiment

    A

    0.9%

    Normal

    No change in number

    B

    0.3%

    Normal

    Fewer in number


    1. Account for the results in the set-up
    2. If the experiment was repeated using 1.4% sodium chloride solution, state the expected results with reference to:
      1. the number of red blood cells
      2. the appearance of red blood cells if viewed under the microscope
    3. Name support tissues in plants characterized by the following
      1. Cells being turgid
      2. Cells being thickened by cellulose
      3. Cells being thickened by lignin
  21. The diagram below illustrates the behaviour of red blood cells when placed into two different solutions X and Y.
    red blood cell in different solutions3
    1. Suggest the nature of solutions X and Y.
    2. Name the process A and B.
    3. What would happen to normal blood cell if it were placed in a isotonic solution.
  22. Name two plant processes in which diffusion plays an important role.
  23. Two fresh potato cylinders of equal length were placed one in distilled water and the other in concentrated sucrose solution:
    1. Account for the change in length of the cylinder in:
      1. Distilled water
      2. Sucrose solution
      1. What would be the result in terms of length if a boiled potato was used?
      2. Explain your answer in(b)(i) above.
    2. State two uses of the physiological process being demonstrated in the experiment
  24. The two cells shown below are obtained from two different potato cylinders which were immersed in two different solutions P and Q.
    potato cylinders in different solutions
    1.  
      1. Name the structure labelled A.
      2. State the function of structure B.
    2. If eight of cell I were observed across the diameter of the filed of view of 0.5 mm, Work out the actual diameters of each cell in micrometers.
    3. Suggest the identity of the solution Q.
    4. Account for the change in cell I above.
    5. State any one importance of the physiological process being demonstrated above in animals. 

Nutrition in Plants and Animals Questions and Answers - Form 1 Biology Topical Revision

  1. An experiment was carried out to investigate the rate of reaction shown below.
    Sucrose → Fructose + Glucose
    For the products; fructose and glucose to be formed, it was found that substance K was to be added and the temperature maintained at 370C. When another substance L was added, the reaction slowed down and eventually stopped.
    1. Suggest the identity of substances K and L. (2mks)
      K ________________________
      L ________________________
    2. Other than temperature state three ways by which the rate of reaction could be increased. (3mks)
    3. Explain how substance L slowed down the reaction. (1mk)
  2. State the role of light in the process of photosynthesis. (2mks)
    Name one product of dark reaction in Photosynthesis (1mk)
  3. State one effect of magnesium deficiency in green plants.
  4. The graph below shows the effect of substrate concentration on the rate of enzyme reaction.
    rate of enzyme reaction graph
    1. Account for the shape of the graph between
      1. A and B (3mks)
      2. B and C (2mks)
    2. How can the rate of reaction be increased after point B? (1mk)
    3. State two factors that affect the rate of enzyme reaction. (2mks)
    1. State the function of co-factors in cell metabolism. (1 mk)
    2. Give one example of a metallic co-factor. (1 mk)
  5. Name two mineral elements that are necessary in the synthesis of chlorophyll. (2mks)
  6. What is the role of the vascular bundles in plants nutrition? (3mks)
  7. Describe what happens during the light stage of photosynthesis. (3mks)
  8. Photosynthesis takes place in two stages.
    1. Name the part of the chloroplast where
      1. Light stage occurs
      2. Dark stage occurs (2mks)
    2. How is dark stage dependant on the light stage of photosynthesis? (2mks)
  9. A solution of sugarcane was boiled with hydrochloric acid; sodium carbonate was heated with Benedict’s solution. An orange precipitate was formed.
    1. Why was the solution boiled with hydrochloric acid? (1mk)
    2. To which class of carbohydrates does sugarcane belong?
    3. Name the type of reaction that takes place when:
      1. Simple sugars combine to form complex sugar. (1mk)
      2. A complex sugar is broken into simple sugar. (1mk)
    4. State the form in which carbohydrates are stored in:
      1. Plants
      2. Animals (2mks)
  10.   
    1. Name structural units of lipids (1mk)
    2. State three important functions of lipids in living organisms. (3mks)
  11. The diagram below shows an experiment carried out to investigate photosynthesis in a potted plant which has been kept in the dark for 48 hours.
    potted plantq12
    The setup was left in the sunshine for 6 hours. The leaf was tested for starch using iodine solution at the end of the experiment.
    1. What would be the colours of the regions of the leaf marked L. M and N? (3mks)
    2. What is the function of the sodium hydroxide pellets? (1mk)
  12.  
    1. Name the bacteria found in the root nodules of leguminous plant. (1mk)
    2. State the association of the bacteria named in a) above with the leguminous plants. (1mk)
    1. State the function of co-factors in cell metabolism.
    2. Give one example of metallic co-factor.
  13. Name the disease in humans that is cause by lack of vitamin C. (1mk)
  14. Name a disease caused by lack of each of the following in human diet;
    1. Vitamin D (1mk)
    2. Iodine (1mk)
  15. Explain how birds of prey are adapted to obtaining their food. (2mks)
  16. Explain biological principles behind the preservation of meat by;
    1. Salting
    2. Refrigeration
    3. Canning (3mks)
  17. State one similarity and one difference between parasitic and predatory modes of feeding (3mks)
  18. In an investigation, the pancreatic duct of a mammal was blocked. It was found that the blood sugar regulation remained normal while food digestion was impaired. Explain these observations. (3mks)
  19. Give a reason why lack of roughage in diet often leads to constipation.
    1. What does the term digestion mean? (2mks)
    2. Describe how the mammalian small intestine is adapted to its function. (18mks)
  20. State the role of vitamin C in humans. (2mks)
    1. Distinguish between the terms homodont and heterodont. (1mk)
    2. What is the function of carnasial teeth? (1mk)
    3. A certain animal has no incisors, no canines, 6 premolars and 6 molars in its upper jaw, in the lower jaw there are 6 incisors, 2 canines, 6 premolars and 6 molars. Write its dental formula.
  21.   
    1. State two functions of bile juice in the digestion of food. (2mks)
    2. How does substrate concentration affects the rate of enzyme action? (1mk)
  22. Name the end-products of the light stage in photosynthesis. (2mks)
  23. The diagram below represents a section through a human tooth.
    premolarq15
    1.  
      1. Name the type of tooth shown.
      2. Give a reason for your answer in (a) (i) above. (1mk)
    2. State a factor that denatures enzymes. (1mk)
  24.   
    1. Name a fat soluble vitamin manufactured by the human body. (1mk)
    2. State two functions of potassium ions in the human body. (2mks)
  25.   
    1. The action of ptyalin stops at the stomach. Explain. (1mk)
    2. State a factor that denatures enzymes. (1mk)
    3. Name the features that increase the surface area of small intestines. (2mks)
  26. Define the following terms (5mks)
    1. Ingestion
    2. Digestion
    3. Absorption
    4. Assimilation
    5. Egestion
  27. Explain the role of the following organs in the digestion of food in a mammal.
    1. Salivary glands
    2. Pancrease
    3. Liver (3mks)
  28. State any three functions of the mucus, which is secreted along the wall of the alimentary canal. (3mks)
  29. Explain why the digestion of starch stops after food enters the stomach. (3mks)
  30. Give an account of the adaptation of a named herbivore to its mode of feeding. (3mks)
  31. What are the contents of gastric juice and what is their role in digestion. (6mks)
  32. Liver damage leads to impaired digestion of fats . Explain the statement. (3mks)
  33. For each of the following nutrients give one example of a good source and one example of its role in the body.
    Nutrient Food source Role in the body
    Vitamin A    
    Iron    
    Iodine    
    Vitamin D    
    Protein    
    (10mks)

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Biology Notes Form 4

Biology Notes Form 4 (4)

For the preparation of national and local exams, get the entire biology Form 4 syllabus for free. These biology form 4 notes are aggregated from the various high school approved text books, including KLB biology form 4, Finder biology form 4, etc. The biology notes cover various topics, as shown below.

The form 4 biological concepts that you can learn using our notes include;

  1. Genetics
  2. Evolution
  3. Reception, Response and Co-ordination in Plants and Animals
  4. Support and Movement in Plants and Animals

You can get the notes for free without having to pay a cent on our Easy Elimu Study App, which you can get from the Google Playstore here.

As a bonus, each topic has summarized notes, so you won’t have to stress over writing that mwakenya, which makes passing that summative biology form 4 term 3 exam easy. Whether it’s term 1, 2 or 3, these free biology form 4 summary notes will give you that grade A.

Chapter 1: Summarized notes on genetics

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • Introduction
  • Variations within Plant and Animal Species
    • Variation
    • Continous and Discontinous Variation
  • Structure and Properties of Chromosomes
    • Number of Chromosomes
    • Chromosome Structure
    • Properties of Chromosomes
    • Structure of DNA
    • Components of DNA
  • First Law of Heredity
    • Monohybrid Inheritance
    • Mendel's Procedure
    • Terms used in Genetics
    • Use of Symbols
    • Test Cross or Back Cross
    • Complete Dominance
    • Incomplete Dominance
    • Inheritance of ABO blood groups in humans
    • The ABO Blood group System
    • Sex Determination in Humans
    • Linkage
  • Mutations
    • Types of Mutations
    • Mutagens
    • Causes and Consequences of Chromosomal Mutations
    • Gene Mutations
    • Genetically Inherited Disorders in Humans
  • Practical Applications of Genetics
  • Practical Activities
    • To demonstrate Contionous variations - Height of Students
    • Discontinous Variations - Ability to Roll Tongue
    • Demonstration of Mitosis and Meiosis

Chapter 2: Summarized notes on evolution

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • Meaning of Evolution and Current Concepts
  • The Origin of Life
    • Special Creation
    • Chemical Evolution
    • Evidence of Organic Evolution
  • Mechanism of Evolution
    • Lamark's theory
    • Evolution by Natural Selection
  • Practical Activities
    • Comparison of Vertebrate Limbs
    • Comparison of wings of bird and insect
    • Education Tour to Archeological Site/Local Museum

Chapter 3: Summarized notes on reception, response and co-ordination in plants and animals

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • Introduction
    • Irritability
    • Stimuli
    • Response
    • Co-ordination
    • Reception
  • Irritability in Plants
    • Tropisms
    • Tactic Movement in Plants and Other Organisms
    • Nastic Movements
    • Production of Auxins and their Effects on Plant Growth
  • Reception, Responses and Coordination in Animals
    • Receptors
    • Effectors
    • The Nervous System
    • Simple And Conditioned Reflex Actions
    • The Role of Endocrine System in Human Beings
    • Comparison between Endocrine and Nervous System
    • Structure and Function of Parts of the Human Eye
    • Structure and Functions of Parts of the Human Ear
  • Practical Activities
    • To Investigate Tactic Responses
    • To Investigate Tropisms in Plants
    • Experiment to Determine Distance of the Blind Spot
    • The Knee Jerk Experiment

Chapter 4: Summarized notes on support and movement in plants and animals

This topic covers various subtopics including:

  • Introduction
  • Necessity for Movement and Support in Plants
  • Tissue Distribution in Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous Plant
    • Role of Support Tissues in Young and Old Plant
  • Support and Movement in Animal
    • Necessity for Support and Movement in Animals.
    • Types and Functions of Skeletons
    • Mammalian Skeleton
    • Practical Activities
  • Practical Activities
    • To Observe Prepared Slides of Transverse Section of Stems of Herbaceous and Woody Plants
    • To Observe Wilting in Young Herbaceous Plants.
    • To Examine the Exoskeleton in an Arthropod.
    • To Observe the External Features of a Finned Fish.
    • To Examine Bones of the Axial Skeleton of a Rabbit.
    • To Observe Bones of Appendicular Skeleton.

After you are done reading the summarized notes, you can test yourself with our biology form 4 questions and answers, which you can access here.
Moreover, if you are having a problem with a specific topic or want to practice more, you can practice with our biology Form 4 topical revision questions and answers, which you can access here.

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Biology Form 2 Topical Revision Questions and Answers

Biology Form 2 Topical Revision Questions and Answers (4)

For the preparation of national and local exams, get biology form 2 topical revision questions with answers for free. These biology topical revision questions are aggregated from the various high school KICD approved textbooks, including KLB biology form 2, Finder biology form 2, Mentors biology form 2, Spotlight biology form 2, Moran biology form 2, Pearsons biology form 2, etc. The biology topical revision questions with answers cover various topics, as shown below.

The form 2 biological concepts that you can revise with these topical revision questions include;

  1. Transport in plants and animals.
  2. Respiration.
  3. Gaseous exchange.
  4. Excretion and homeostasis.

You can get the topical revision questions for free without having to pay a cent on our Easy Elimu Study App, which you can get from the Google Playstore here.

As a bonus, if you need to refresh your knowledge on a topic, EasyElimu has summarized notes, so you won’t have to stress over looking for notes, which makes passing that summative biology form 2 term 3 exam easy. Whether it’s term 1, 2 or 3, these free biology form 2 revision topical questions will give you that grade A.

Visit the EasyElimu App to get the answers to the topical revision questions for free.
Alternatively, click the blue download button on this page to download, in PDF format, the specific topical revision questions with answers

Questions per topic

1. Transport in Plants and Animals Questions and Answers - Biology Form 2 Topical Revision

Transport in Plants - Questions
  1. In an experiment, a leafy shoot was set up in a photometer and kept in a dark room for 2 hours. The set up was then transferred to a well-lit room for 2 hours.
    1. What was the aim of this experiment? (1mk)
    2. Explain the results which would be expected in each of the two experiments conditions. (3mks)
  2. Explain how drooping of leaves on a hot sunny day is advantageous to plant. (2mks)
  3. Explain how environmental factors affect the rate of transpiration in flowering plants. (20mks)
  4. The diagram below represents a transverse section of a young stem.
    transverse of young stem
    1. Name the parts labeled A and B (2mks)
      A___________________
      B____________________
    2. State the functions of the parts labeled C, D and E
      C________________
      D_______________
      E_______________
    3. List three differences between the section shown above and one that would be obtained from the root of the same plant (3mks)
  5. The diagram below represents the pathway of water from soil into the plant.
    pathaway of water from soil
    1. Name the structures labeled K and L
      K_______________
      L_______________ (2mks)
    2. Explain how water from the soil reaches the structure labeled L. (5mks)
    3. Name the process by which mineral salts enter into the plant. (1mk)
  6. State two ways in which xylem are adapted to their function. (2mks)
  7. What makes young herbaceous plant remain upright? (2mks)
  8. The diagram below represents part of phloem tissue
    phloem tissue
    1. Name the structures labeled R and S and a cell labeled T.
      R ___________________
      S ___________________
      Cell T ___________________ (3mks)
    2. State the function of the structure labeled S. (1mk)
    3. Explain why xylem is a mechanical tissue (2mks)
  9. Name the
    1. Material that strengthens xylem tissue. (1mk)
    2. Tissue that is removed when the bark of a dicotyledonous plant is ringed. (1mk)
  10. How are xylem vessels adapted for support? (1mk)
  11. What is the role of vascular bundles in plant nutrition? (3mks)
    1. Name two tissues which are thickened with lignin. (2mks)
    2. How is support attained in herbaceous plant? (1mk)
  12. The diagram below represents a transverse section through a plant organ.
    transverse through a root
    1. From which plant organ was the section obtained? (1mk)
    2. Give two reasons for your answer in (a) above. (2mks)
    3. Name the parts labeled J, K and L (3mks)
      J__________________________________
      K_________________________________
      L_________________________________
    4. State two functions of the part labeled M. (2mks)
  13. Describe how water moves from the soil to the leaves in a tree. (20mks)
  14. State two ways in which the root hairs are adapted to their function. (2mks)
  15. The diagram below represents a plant tissue.
    plant tissue
    Name the parts labelled K and L.
    K_________
    L____________
  16. In an experiment to determine the effect of ringing on the concentration of sugar in phloem, a ring of bark from the stem of a tree was cut and removed. The amount of sugar in grammes per 16cm3 piece of bark above the ring was measured over a 24 hour period. Sugar was also measure in the bark of a similar stem of a tree which was not ringed. The results are shown in the table below
    Time of the day Amount of sugar in grammes per 16 cm3 piece of bark
    Normal stem Ringed stem
    0645  0.78  0.78
    0945  0.80  0.91
    1245  0.81  1.01
    1545  0.80  1.04
    1845  0.77  1.00
    2145  0.73  0.95
    0045  0.65  0.88

    1. Using the same axes, plot a graph of the amount of sugar against time (6mks)
    2. At what time was the amount of sugar highest in the;
      1. Ringed stem (1mk)
      2. Normal stem (1mk)
    3. How much sugar would be in the rigged stem if it was measured at 0345 hours. (2mks)
    4. Give reasons why there was sugar in the stems of both trees at 06 45 hours. (2mks)
    5. Account for the shape of the graph for the tree with ringed stem between:
      1. 0645 hours and 1545 hours (3mks)
      2. 1545 hours and 0045 hours (2mks)
    6. Other than sugars name two compounds that are translocated in phloem. (2mks)
  17. Explain why plants shed off their leaves. (2mks)
    1. What is the importance of transpiration to plants?
    2. Give adaptive features which enable a plant to reduce the loss of water.
Transport in Animals - Questions
  1. People can die when they inhale gases from burning charcoal in poorly ventilated rooms. What compound is formed in the human body that leads to such deaths? (1mk)
  2. Explain why blood from a donor whose blood group is A cannot be transfused into a recipient whose blood group is B. (2mks)
  3. State one difference between closed and open circulatory systems. (1mk)
  4.  
    1. Give an example of a phylum where all members have
      1. Open circulatory system
      2. Closed circulatory system (2mks)
    2. What are the advantages of the closed circulatory system over the open circulatory system? (5mks)
  5. Explain two ways in which mammalian erythrocytes (red blood cells) are adapted to their function (2mks)
      1. Name the blood vessels that link arterioles with venules. (1mk)
      2. Explain four ways in which the vessels you named in (a) above are suited to carrying out their functions. (4mks)
    1. State two ways in which the composition of blood in the pulmonary arterioles differ from that in the pulmonary venules. (2mks)
  6. Why would carboxyhaemoglobin lead to death? (2mks)
  7. Explain how the red blood cells of mammals are adapted for efficient transport of oxygen. (2mks)
  8. The chart below is a summary of the blood clotting mechanism in man.
    blood clotting mechanism
    Name
    1. The blood cells represented by X
    2. Metal ion represented by Y
    3. The end product of the mechanism represented Z
  9.   
    1. How can excess bleeding result in death? (2mks)
    2. Name the process by which the human body naturally stops bleeding. (1mk)
    3. How can low blood volume be brought back to normal? (2mks)
  10.   
    1. Name one defect of the circulatory system in humans. (1mk)
    2. State three functions of blood other than transport. (3mks)
  11.   
    1. What prevents blood in veins from flowing backwards? (1mk)
    2. State two ways in which the red blood cells are adapted to their function. (2mks)
  12. State one way by which HIV/AIDS is transmitted from mother to child. (1mk)
  13. Explain how the various components of blood are adapted for their function. (20mks)
  14. Distinguish between blood, plasma, serum, tissue fluid and lymph. (10mks)

  15.   
    1. A patient whose blood group is A died shortly after receiving blood from a person of blood group B. Explain the possible cause of death of the patient. (2mks)
    2. A person of blood group AB requires a transfusion.
      1. Name the blood groups of the possible donors (2mks)
      2. Give reasons for your answer in (i) above. (2mks)
  16. Differentiate between active immunity and passive immunity. (2mks)
  17. Explain why a person can catch a cold several times in a year but only catches measles once in his or her lifetime. (2mks)
  18. Most carbon dioxide is transported from tissues to the lungs within the red blood cells and not in the blood plasma. Give two advantages of this mode of transport. (2mks)
  19. What is the importance of tissue fluid? (2mks)

2. Respiration Questions and Answers - Biology Form 2 Topical Revision

  1. The diagram below shows a set up that was used to demonstrate fermentation.
    fermentation
    Glucose solution was boiled and oil added on top of it. The glucose solution was then allowed to cool before adding the yeast suspension.
    1. Why was the glucose solution boiled before adding the yeast suspension? (1mk)
    2. What was the importance of cooling the glucose solution before adding the yeast suspension? (1mk)
    3. What was the use of the oil in the experiment? (1mk)
    4. What observation would be made in test tube B at the end of the experiment (1mk)
    5. Suggest a control for this experiment (1mk)
  2. Give two reasons why accumulation of lactic acid during vigorous exercise lead to an increase in heart beat. (2mks)
  3. A process that occurs in plants is represented by the equation below.
    C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + (2CO2) + Energy
    Glucose        Ethanol    Carbon Dioxide
    1. Name the process (1mk)
    2. State the economic importance of process name in (a) above. (1mk)
  4. Other than carbon dioxide, name the other products of anaerobic respiration in plants. (2mks)
  5. Name the substance which accumulates in muscles when respiration occurs with insufficient oxygen. (1mk)
  6.   
    1. In what form is energy stored in muscles? (1mk)
    2. State the economic importance of anaerobic respiration in plants. (2mks)
  7. State four ways in which respiratory surfaces are suited to their function. (4mks)
  8.   
    1. A dog weighing 15.2kg requires 216kJ while a mouse weighing 50g requires 2736KJ per day. Explain. (2mks)
    2. What is the end product of respiration in animals when there is insufficient oxygen supply? (1mk)
  9.   
    1. Name the products of anaerobic respiration in:
      1. Plants (1mk)
      2. Animals (1mk)
    2. What is oxygen debt? (1mk)
  10. 2C51H98O6 + 145O2 → 102CO2 + 98 H2O + energy
    The above equation shows an oxidation reaction of food substances.
    1. What do you understand by the term respiratory quotient? (1mk)
    2. Determine respiratory quotient of the oxidation of food substance. (2mks)
    3. Identify the food substances. (1mk)
  11. Write differences between aerobic respiration and photosynthesis. (4mks)
  12. Below is a diagram of an organelle that is involved in aerobic respiration.
    organelle involved in aerobic respiration
    1. Name the organelle (1mk)
    2. Name the parts labeled A, B, and C. (3mks)
    3. What is the purpose of the folding labeled D? (1mk)
    4. Give the chemical compound which is formed in the organelle and forms the immediate source of energy.

3. Gaseous Exchange Questions and Answers - Biology Form 2 Topical Revision

  1. Discuss how gaseous exchange occurs in
    1. Terrestrial Insects (9mks)
    2. Bony fish (11mks)
  2.   
    1. Explain how mammalian lungs are adapted for gaseous exchange. (8mks)
    2. Describe how carbon dioxide is produced by
      1. Respiring muscle cells reaches the alveolar cavities in mammalian lungs.
      2. Respiring mesophyll cells of flowering plants reaches the atmosphere. (12 mks)
  3.   
    1. Describe the path taken by carbon dioxide released from the tissues of an insect to the atmosphere.
    2. Name two structures used for gaseous exchange in plants. (2mks)
  4. Why are gills in fish highly vascularized? (1mk)
  5. Describe the
    1. Process of inhalation in mammals. (10 mks)
    2. Mechanism of opening and closing of stomata (10 mks)
  6. Name three sites where gaseous exchange takes place in terrestrial plants. (3mks)
  7. State two ways in which floating leaves of aquatic plants are adapted to gaseous exchange. (2mks)
  8.   
    1. Name two structures for gaseous exchange in aquatic plants. (2mks)
    2. What is the effect of contraction of the diaphragm muscles during breathing in mammals? (3mks)
  9. The diagram below represents some gaseous exchange structures in humans.
    gaseous exchange in humans
    1. Name the structure labeled K, L and M (3mks)
    2. How is the structure labeled J suited to its functions? (3mks)
    3. Name the process by which inhaled air moves from the structure labeled L into blood capillaries. (1mk)
    4. Give the scientific name of the organism that causes tuberculosis in humans. (1mk)
  10. State three factors that make alveolus adapted to its function. (3mks)
  11. Explain how the alveoli are ventilated.
  12.  Explain why water logging of the soil may lead to death in plants. (2mks)
  13. Write three advantages of breathing through nose than through mouth. (3mks)
  14. State and explain ways the leaves are adapted for gaseous exchange (4mks)
  15. Name three gaseous constituents involved in gaseous exchange in plants. (3mks)
  16. Name three sites of gaseous exchange in frogs. (3mks)
  17.  Name the main site of gaseous exchange in
    1. Mammals
    2. Fish
    3. Leaves
    4. Amoeba (4mks)
  18. Name the physiological process by which gas exchange takes place at the respiratory surface in animals and plants (1mk)
  19. The diagram below represents a part of the rib cage.
    ribcage
    1. Name parts labeled W, Y and Z.
    2. How does the part labeled Z facilitates breathing in? (1mk)
  20. How is aerenchyma tissue adapted to its function? (2mks)

4. Excretion and Homeostasis Questions and Answers - Biology Form 2 Topical Revision

  1. In an investigation the pancreatic duct of a mammal was blocked. It was found that the blood sugar regulation remained normal while food digestion was impaired. Explain these observations. (2 marks)
  2.   
    1. Explain why the body temperature of a healthy human being must rise up to 390c on a humid day. (2 marks)
    2. In an experiment a piece of brain was removed from rat. It was found that the rat had large fluctuations of body temperatures suggest the part of the brain that had been removed. (1 mark)
  3.   
    1. Explain why sweat accumulates on a person’s skin in a hot humid environment. (2 marks)
    2. Name the specific part of the brain that triggers sweating. (1 marks)
  4. Explain why some desert animals excrete uric acid rather than ammonia. (2 marks)
  5. State the role of the following hormones in the body
    1. Insulin (3 marks)
    2. Antidiuretic Hormone (3 marks)
  6. What osmoregulatory changes would take place in a marine amoeba if it was transferred to a fresh water environment?
  7. Name two components of blood that are not present in glomerular filtrate. (2 marks)
  8. How would one find out from a sample of urine whether a person is suffering from diabetes mellitus? (2 marks)
  9. When is glycogen, which is stored in the liver, converted into glucose and released into the blood? ( 2 marks)
  10. A person was found to pass out large volumes of dilute urine frequently. Name the
    1. Diseases the person was suffering from (1 marks)
    2. Hormone that was deficient (1 mark)
  11. State the importance of osmoregulation in organisms ( 2 marks)
  12. What happens to excess fatty acids and glycerol in the body? (2 marks)
  13. Give reasons for each of the following
    1. Constant body temperature is maintained in mammals ( 1 mark)
    2. Low blood sugar level is harmful to the body ( 2 marks)
  14. The temperature of a person taken before during and after taking a cold bath. The results are shown in the graph
    graphq14bio
    1. Explain why the temperature fell during the bath ( 2 marks)
    2. What changes appeared in the skin that enabled the body temperature to return to normal. (2 marks)
  15.   
    1. Name the fluid that is produced by sebaceous glands (1 mark)
    2. What is the role of sweat on the human skin? ( 2 marks)
  16. State the role of insulin in the human body? ( 1 mark)
  17.   
    1. What is the meaning of the following terms:
      1. Homeostasis ( 1 mark)
      2. Osmoregulation (1 mark)
    2. Name the hormones involved in regulating glucose level in blood
  18.    
    1. Explain what happens to excess amino acids in the liver of humans. (3 marks)
    2. Which portions of the human nephrons are only found in the cortex? (3 marks)
    3.   
      1. What would happen if a person produced less antidiuretic hormone? (1 mark)
      2. What term is given to the condition described in (c) (i) above? (1 mark)
  19. Define the following terms
    1. Excretion
    2. Secretion
    3. Egestion ( 3 marks)
  20. Name the components of blood that do not enter the renal tubule in mammals (2 marks)
  21. The table below shows the approximate percent concentration of various components in blood plasma entering the kidney glomerular filtrate and urine of a healthy human being.
    Component Plasma  Glomerular  Urine Filtrate
    Water
    Glucose
    Amino Acids
    Plasma proteins
    Urea
    In organic ions
    90
    0.1
    0.05
    8.0
    0.03
    0.72
    90
    0.1
    0.05
    0
    0.03
    0.72
    94
    0
    0
    0
    2.0
    1.5

    1. Name the process responsible for the formation of glomerular filtrate.
    2. What process is responsible for the absence of glucose and amino acids in urine?
    3. Explain why there are no plasma proteins in the glomerular filtrate
    4. Besides plasma proteins what other major component of blood is absent in the glomerular filtrate.
    5. Why is the concentration of urea in urine much higher than its concentration in the glomerular filtrate?
  22. When the environmental temperature is very high, some animals urinate on their legs or lick the sides of their body. How does this help in temperature regulation?
  23. Fish are able to use more of their food intake for growth than mammals. Suggest an explanation for this.
  24. Explain the term negative feedback
  25. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.
    circulatory system representation
    1. Name the blood vessels labeled A, B and C.
    2. If the animals has recently fed on a diet which is rich in proteins and carbohydrates in which of the vessels labeled A, B, and C would you expect to find the highest concentration of:
      1. Glucose
      2. Amino acids
      3. Carbon (IV) oxide
      4. Oxygen
      5. Urea
    3. During fasting, the level of blood glucose in vessels C may be higher than the level in vessel B explain
  26. Describe how the human kidney functions. ( 20 marks)

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Biology Form 3 Topical Revision Questions and Answers

Biology Form 3 Topical Revision Questions and Answers (4)

For the preparation of national and local exams, get biology form 3 topical revision questions with answers for free. These biology topical revision questions are aggregated from the various high school KICD approved textbooks, including KLB biology form 3, Finder biology form 3, Mentors biology form 3, Spotlight biology form 3, Moran biology form 3, Pearsons biology form 3, etc. The biology topical revision questions with answers cover various topics, as shown below.

The form 3 biological concepts that you can revise with these topical revision questions include;

  1. Classification 2
  2. Ecology
  3. Reproduction in plants and animals
  4. Growth and development

You can get the topical revision questions for free without having to pay a cent on our Easy Elimu Study App, which you can get from Google Playstore here.

As a bonus, if you need to refresh your knowledge on a topic, EasyElimu has summarized notes, so you won’t have to stress over looking for notes, which makes passing that summative biology form 3 term 3 exam easy. Whether it’s term 1, 2 or 3, these free biology form 3 revision topical questions will give you that grade A.

Visit the EasyElimu App to get the answers to the topical revision questions for free.
Alternatively, click the blue download button on this page to download, in PDF format, the specific topical revision questions with answers

Questions per topic

Classification II Questions and Answers - Biology Form 3 Topical Revision

  1. State two ways in which some fungi are harmful to man ( 2 marks)
  2. The diagram below represents a fern
    fernq2
    Name
    1. Parts labeled A and B ( 2 marks)
    2. The division which the plant belongs ( 1 mark)
  3. An organism with an exoskeleton, segmented body, two pairs of legs per segment, a pair of eyes and a pair of eyes and a pair of short antennae belongs to the phylum ( 1 mark)
  4. When are two organisms considered to belong to the same species? ( 2 marks)
  5. A student caught an animal which had the following characteristics;
    - Body divided into two parts
    - Simple eyes
    - Eight legs
    The animal belongs to the class ( 1 mark)
  6. Below is a list of organisms, which belong to classes insecta, myriapoda and arachnida. Tick, centipede, praying mantis, tsetse fly. Millipede and spider. Place the organisms in their respective classes in the table below. Give reasons in each case.
    Class Organisms Reasons
    Insecta    
    Myriapoda    
    Arachnida    
  7. State two characteristics features of members of division bryophyte (2 marks)
  8. State two ways in which some fungi are beneficial to humans ( 2 marks)
  9. Other than having many features in common state the other characteristics of species ( 1 mark)
  10. Beside the abdomen, name the other body part of members of arachnida (1 mark)
  11. Name the phylum whose members possess notochord. ( 1 mark)
  12. Name the class in the phylum arthropoda which has the largest number of individuals ( 1 mark)
  13. To which class does an animal with two body parts and four pairs of legs belong? (1 mark)
  14.   
    1. Name two organisms that cause food spoilage ( 2 marks)
    2. Name two methods of food preservation and for each state the biological principal behind it. ( 2 marks)
  15.   
    1. List two characteristics that mammals share with birds ( 2 marks)
    2. State two major characteristics that are unique to mammals ( 2 marks)
  16. What two characteristics distinguish animals in phylum chordata? ( 2 marks)
  17. The diagram below shows a plant
    plantq17
    1. Name the parts labeled A and B (2 marks)
    2. Name the division to which the plant belongs ( 1 mark)
    3. Which is the dominant generation of the plant in the diagram? (1 mark)
    4. State three characteristics of the organisms in the division named (b) above?
  18. What three characteristics are used to divide the arthropods into classes? (3 marks)
  19.   
    1. Write two differences between algae and fungi ( 2 marks)
    2. Give the economic importance of algae ( 1 mark)
  20.   
    1. What is alteration of generations? ( 3 marks)
    2. Name two divisions in plant kingdom that shows alternation of generation (2 marks)
  21.   
    1. A millipede, grasshopper and crayfish all belong to phylum arthropoda.
      Mention three major characteristics that they have in common. (3 marks)
    2. The specific name of Irish potato is solanum Tuberrasum
      1. Identify two errors that have been made when writing the name
      2. What is the species name of Irish potato?
    3. An ecologist came across a plant with the following characteristics, green in colour, non- flowering, compound leaves and sori on the underside of the leaflets. State the probable division of the plant. ( 1 mark)
  22. An organism with an exoskeleton, segmented body, two pairs of legs per segment, a pair of eyes and a pair of short antennae belongs to the class ( 1 mark)
  23. List the main characteristics that are used to sub- divide arthropods into classes (2 marks
  24.  Name the main method of reproduction among bacteria. ( 1 mark)

Ecology Questions and Answers - Biology Form 3 Topical Revision

  1. State how excessive use of pesticides may affect soil fertility
  2. The graph below represents a population growth of a certain herbivore in a grassland ecosystem over a period of time.
    ecology q2
    Suggest three factors that could have caused the population change between C and D (3 marks)
  3. A biologist carried out a study to investigate the growth of a certain species of herbivorous bony fish and the factors influencing plant and animal life in four lakes A, B, C and D. The lakes were located in the same geographical area.
    Two of the lakes A and B were found to contain hard water due to presence of high content of calcium slats. The mean body length of 2 year old fish, amount of plant life and invertebrates biomass in each lake were determines. The data was as shown in
    Lakes Mean body length (cm) Type of water Amount of plant life Inveertebrate biomass (g/cm3)
    Insects Snails Crabs Worms
    A
    B
    C
    D
    31.2
    28.6
    18.4
    16.3
    Hard
    Hard
    Soft
    Soft
    1050
    950
    1.2
    0.5
    11
    72
    97
    99
    300
    100
    0 0
    10
    9
    2
    1
    180
    90
    20
    10
    1. Describe the procedure that may have been used to determine the mean body length of the fish ( 6 marks)
    2. What are the likely reasons for the difference in the mean body length of the fish living in lakes A and D? ( 4 marks)
    3. Suggest one reason for the absence of snails in lakes C and D? (1 mark)
      1. Name any six abiotic (physical) factors that are likely to influence the plant and animal life in lake A. ( 3 marks)
      2. Explain how each of the factors named in (i) may influence the plant and animals life in Lake A. ( 6 marks)
  4. During an ecological study of a lake a group of students recorded the following observations.
    (i) Planktonic crustaceans feed on planktonic algae
    (ii) Small fish feed on planktonic crustaceans worms and insect larvae
    (iii) Worms feed on insect larvae
    (iv) Bird species feeds on small fish planktonic crustaceans and worms
    (v) Insect larvae feed on small fish
    1. From this record of observations construct a feed web (5 marks)
    2. From the food web you have constructed in (a) above isolate and write down a food chain that ends with
      1. Bird species as a secondary consumer (1 mark)
      2. Large fish as tertiary consumer (1 mark)
    3. The biomass of the producers in the lake was found to be greater than that of primary consumers. Give an explanation for this observation? (1 mark)
    4. Using either the observations recorded by the students or the food web you have constructed name (1 mark)
      1. Two organisms that compete for food in the lake. (2 marks)
      2. The source of food the organisms in d (i) above compete for (1 mark)
      1. State three ways by which many may interfere with this lake ecosystem ( 3 marks)
      2. Explain how each of the ways you have states may affect life in the lake? ( 6 marks)
  5. In an investigation, a student collected two plants A and B. Plant A had hairy leaves and epidermis. Leaves of plant B
    1. Plant A ( 1 mark)
    2. Plant B ( 1 mark)
  6. An investigation was carried out between 1964 and 1973 to study the changes of fish population in a certain small lake. Four species of fish A, B, C and D were found to live in this lake. In 1965 a factory was built near the lake and was found to discharge hot water into the lake raising the average temperature from 250C to 300C. In 1967 sewage and industrial waste from a nearby town was diverted into the lake was stopped. The fish population during the period of investigation is shown in the table below.
    Fish species Fish population during the period
    1964 1966 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973
    A
    B
    C
    D
    6102
    208
    36
    4521
    223
    30
    100
    272
    26
    11
    0
    23
    106
    22
    0
    27
    660
    63
    0
    79
    4071
    311
    0
    400
    7512
    405
    0
    617
    1.  
      1. In which year were the fish populations lowest?
      2. State the factors that might have caused the lowest fish populations during the year you have stated in (a) (i) above ( 3 marks)
      3. Explain how each factor you have stated in (a) (ii) above could have brought about the changes in fish populations (11 marks)
      1. What is the difference in the rate of population recovery of species A and D? (1 mark)
      2. Suggest two biological factors that could have led to this difference (2 marks)
      1. State a method that might have been used to estimate the fish population in the lake ( 1 mark)
      2. State one disadvantage of the method you have stated in (c) (i) above (1 mark)
  7. Industrial wastes may contain metallic pollutants. State how such pollutants may indirectly reach and accumulate in the human body if the wastes were dumped into rivers.
  8. State three measures that can betaken to control infection of man by protozoan parasites ( 3 marks)
  9. The chart below shows a feeding relationship in a certain ecosystem
    ecology foodwebq9
    1. Construct two food chains ending with a tertiary consumer in each case (2 marks)
    2. Which organisms has the largest variety of predators in the food web? (1 mark)
    3. Name secondary consumers in the food web ( 2 marks)
    4. Suggest three ways in which the ecosystem would be affected if there was prolonged drought ( 3 marks)
  10. To estimate the population size of crabs in a certain lagoon, traps were laid at random. 400 crabs were caught, marked and released back into the lagoon. Four days later, traps were laid again and 374 crabs were caught. Out of the 374 crabs, 80 were found to have been marked.
    1. Calculate the population size of the crabs in the lagoon using the formula below
      N = n x M
               M
      Where
      N= Total population of crabs in the lagoon
      n= Total number of crabs in the second catch
      M= Number marked crabs during the first catch
      M= Number of marked crabs in the second catch. ( 2 marks)
    2. State two assumptions that were made during the investigation ( 2 marks)
    3. What is the name given to this method of estimating the population size? (1 mark)
  11. The figure below represents a feeding relationship in an ecosystem
    ecology foodwebq11
    1. Write down the food chains in which the guinea fowls are secondary consumers (1 mark)
    2. What would be the short term effects on the eco- system of lions invaded the area? ( 3 marks)
    3. Name the organisms through which energy from the sun enters the food web. (1 mark)
  12. The diagram below represents a simplified nitrogen cycle
    ecology nitrogen circle
    1. Name the organisms that causes processes E and J ( 2 marks)
    2. Name the processes represented by F and H (2 marks)
    3. Name the group of organisms represented by c (i)
    1. Distinguish between a community and a population (2 marks)
    2. Describe how a population of grasshopper in a given area can be estimated (5 marks)
  13. Explain how the various activities of man have caused pollution of air ( 20 marks)
  14. Explain how birds of prey are adapted to obtaining their food ( 2 marks)
    1. Name the crop infested by phytophthora infestants and the disease it causes
      Crop -
      Disease -
    2. State four control measures against the diseases ( 4 marks)
  15. Explain why the carrying capacity for wild animals is higher than for cattle in a given piece of land ( 2 marks)
    1. What is meant by
      1. Autecology ( 1 mark)
      2. Synecology ( 1 mark)
    2. The number and distribution of stomata on three different leaves are shown in the table below
      Leaf Number of stomata
      Upper epidermis Lower epidermis


      C
      300
      150
      02
      0
      200
      13

      Suggest the possible habitat of the plants from which the leaves were obtained. (3 marks)
      Leaf               Habitat
      A                   ____________________
      B                   ____________________
      C                   ____________________
    3. State the modification found in the stomata of leaf C
  16. Name the organism that causes amoebic dysentery.
  17. After an ecological study of feeding relationships students constructed the food web below
    ecology foodwebq20
    1. Name the process through which energy from the sun is incorporated into the food web ( 1 mark)
    2. State the mode of feeding of the birds in the food web (1 mark)
    3. Name two ecosystem in which the organisms in the food web live( 2 marks)
    4. From the information in the food web construct a food chain with the large bird as a quarter – nary consumer ( 1 mark)
    5. What would happen to the organisms in the food web if bird N migrated?
    6. Not all energy from one trophic level is available to the next level. Explain (3 marks)
      1. Two organisms, which display a role in the ecosystems, are not included in the food web. Name them. ( 1 mark)
      2. State the role played by the organisms named g (i) above. (1 mark)
      1. State three human activities that would affect the ecosystems ( 3 marks)
      2. How would the activities stated in h (i) above affect the ecosystems? (3 marks)
  18. How is aerenchyma tissue adapted to its functions? ( 2 marks)
  19. Explain how abiotic factors affect plants ( 20 marks)
  20. What is the importance of the following in an ecosystem? ( 3 marks)
    1. Decomposers
    2. Predation
  21. Chart below represents a simplified nitrogen cycle
    ecology simplified nitrogen circle
    What is represented by X, Y and Z? ( 3 marks)
    1. Distinguish between pyramid of numbers and pyramid of Biomass (2 marks)
    2. Give three reasons for loss of energy from one trophic level to another in a food chain. ( 3 marks)
    3. Describe how the belt transect can be used in estimating the population of a shrub in a grassland ( 2 marks)
    1. Distinguish between population and community ( 2 marks)
    2. Name a method that could be used to estimate the population size of the following organisms
      1. Fish in a pond ( 1 mark)
      2. Black jack in a garden ( 1 mark)
  22. State two ways in which schistosoma species is adapted to parasitic mode of life
  23. Describe causes and methods of controlling water pollution ( 20 marks)
    1. What is biological control of population growth? ( 2 marks)
    2. Describe one example where biological control has been used successfully (2 marks)
    3. Explain why the number of predators in nay ecosystem is less than the number of their prey ( 1 mark)
  24. Suggest reasons to account for the following observations.
    1. Antelopes are more commonly found in open grassland while giraffe while giraffes are commonly found in wooded areas. ( 2 marks)
    2. In the savannah there is a wider variety of herbivores in wooded areas than in open grassland ( 1 mark)
    3. Removal of predators for an herbivore may in the long run lead to a decrease in its population
  25. Explain why primary productivity decreases with depth in aquatic environments. (2 marks)
  26. The following is a simplified drawing of nitrogen cycle.
    ecology simplified nitrogen circleq32
    1. Identify the compound named A ( 1 mark)
    2. Name the processes
      X _________________
      Y _________________
      Z _________________
    3. In what form is nitrogen found in plants and animals?
  27. An investigation was carried out to study the type of food eaten by birds found in forest and savannah in a certain area. The table below compares the feeding habitats of the birds found in a closed forest area and an open dry savannah of the area.
    Diet Percentage of birds
    Forest Savannah
    Insects only
    Vertebrates
    Seeds
    Fruits
    Other plant materials
    Number
    60
    10
    5
    25
    5
    120
    50
    10
    20
    10
    5
    60
    1. Work out the difference in the number of bird species the feed on:
      1. Fruits found in forest and savannah ( 2 marks)
      2. Seed found in forest and savannah ( 2 marks)
    2. State two factors that may cause this difference in (a) above ( 2 marks)
    3. In another investigation two vertebrate species from the savannah were counted and recorded on monthly basis as shown below.
      Year Month Species A  Species B
      1998
      1998
      1998
      1998
      1998
      1998
      1998
      1998
      1998
      1998
      1998
      1998
      July
      August
      September
      October
      November
      December
      January
      February
      March
      April
      May
      June
      96
      79
      75
      87
      -
      99
      129
      96
      99
      79
      135
      104
      240
      590
      900
      750
      230
      80
      200
      330
      300
      320
      90
      450
      1. Which species show more fluctuation in numbers? ( 1 mark)
      2. Suggest an explanation of this ( 3 marks)
    4. Suggest two ways by which the savannah environment can be destroyed and how it can be conserved ( 4 marks)

Reproduction in Plants and Animals Questions and Answers - Biology Form 3 Topical Revision

  1. At what stage of mitosis do chromosomes replicate to form daughter chromatid? (1 mark)
  2. Fill in the blank spaces in the statement below
    After fertilization of an ovule _________ develops into a testa and _________ develops into a testa and _____________ develops into endosperm. ( 2 marks)
  3. State the difference between the composition of maternal blood entering the placenta and material blood leaving the placenta ( 3 marks)
  4. After four months of pregnancy the ovaries of a woman can be removed without terminating pregnancy. However during the first four months of pregnancy the ovaries must remain intact if pregnancy is to be maintained. Explain these observations ( 3 marks)
  5. Name two mechanisms that prevent self pollination in flowers that have both male and female parts ( 2 marks)
  6. State three characteristics that ensure cross pollination takes place in flowering plants ( 3 marks)
  7. Give a reason why it is necessary for frogs to lay many eggs ( 1 mark)
  8. A flower was found to have the following characteristics
    - Inconspicuous petals
    - Long feathery stigma
    - Small light pollen grains
    1. What is the likely agent of pollination of the flower? ( 1 mark)
    2. What is the significance of the long feathery stigma in the flower ( 1 mark)
  9. State two ways by which the human Immuno Deficiency virus (HIV) is transmitted other than sexual intercourse? ( 2 marks)
  10. Explain why sexual reproduction is important in organisms ( 3 marks)
  11. State two disadvantages of self- pollination ( 2 marks)
  12. The chart below shows the number of chromosomes before and after cell division and fertilization in a mammal.
    reproduction chromosomes q12
    1. What type of cell division takes place at Z? ( 1 mark)
    2. Where in the body of a female does process Z occur? ( 1 mark)
    3. On the chart indicate the position of parent and gametes ( 2 marks)
  13.   
    1. What is meant by the terms
      1. Epigynous flower ( 1 mark)
      2. Staminate flower (1 mark)
    2. How are the male parts of wind- pollinated flowers adapted to their function? (4 marks)
  14. Name the part of a flower that developed into:
    1. Seed (1 mark)
    2. Fruit (1 mark)
  15.   
    1. State two processes which occur during anaphase of mitosis ( 2 marks)
    2. What is the significance of meiosis? (2 marks)
  16.   
    1. Explain how the following prevents self- pollination:
      1. Protoandry ( 1 mark)
      2. Self- sterility ( 1 mark)
    2. Give three advantages of cross- pollination ( 3 marks)
  17. The diagram below represents a human foetus in a uterus
    reproduction foetus
    1. Name the part labeled S ( 1 mark)
    2.   
      1. Name the types of blood vessels found in the structure labeled Q (2 marks)
      2. State the difference in composition of blood in the vessels named (b) (i) above ( 2 marks)
    3. Name two features that enable the structure labeled P carry out its function (2 mark)
    4. State the role of the part labeled R ( 1 mark)
  18. The diagram below represents a stage during cell division
    anaphase I
      1. Identify the stage of cell division ( 1 mark)
      2. Give three reasons for your answer (a) (i) above ( 2 marks)
    1. Name the structure labeled M ( 1 mark)
  19. State two disadvantages of sexual reproduction in animals ( 2 marks)
  20.   
    1. What is meant by the following terms?
      1. Protandry ( 1 mark)
      2. Self- sterility ( 1 mark)
    2. The diagram below shows a stage during fertilization in plant
      fertiliziation in plants
      1. Name the parts labeled Q, R, and S ( 3 marks)
      2. State two functions of the pollen tube ( 2 marks)
    3. On the diagram, label the micropyle ( 1 mark)
  21.   
    1. Describe how insect pollinated flowers are adopted to pollination (6 marks)
    2. Describe the role of each of the following hormones in the human menstrual cycle.
      1. Oestrogen
      2. Progesterone
      3. Luteinizing hormone ( 3 marks)
  22. Describe the role of hormones in the human menstrual cycle (20 marks)
  23. What part does the placenta play in the
    1. Nutrition of the embryo
    2. Protection of the embryo ( 4 marks)

Growth and Development Questions and Answers - Biology Form 3 Topical Revision

  1. Explain why several auxiliary buds sprout when a terminal bud in a young tree is removed.
  2. Account for loss in dry weight of cotyledons in a germinating bean seed.
  3. What is the effect of gibberellins on shoots of plants?
  4. A student set up an experiment as shown in the diagram below
    growthq4
    The set up was left at room temperature for a week
    1. What was the aim of the experiment?
    2. What would be the expected results at the end of the experiment?
  5. State two advantages of metamorphosis to the life of insects
  6. During germination and early growth, the dry weight of endosperm decreases while that of the embryo increases. Explain
  7. In an experiment, a group of student set up four glass jars as shown in the diagram below jar A, B and C were maintained at 250C for 7 days. While Jar D was maintained at 00 c for the same period of time.
    growth q7
    1. What was this set up supposed to investigate?
    2. Why was pyrogallic acid included in glass jar A?
    3. Explain why glass jar C and D were included in the experiment
    4. What result would you expect in glass jar A and B at the end of the experiment?
    5. State two artificial ways of breaking seed dormancy
  8. Removal of the apical bud from the shrub is a practice that results in the development of the lateral buds which later from the branches.
    1. Give reasons for the development of the lateral braches after the removal of the apical bud
    2. Suggest one application of this practice
    3. What is the importance of this practice?
  9. In an experiment some germination seeds were placed in large airtight flask and left for four days
    1. Suggest the expected changes in the composition of gases in the flask on the fifth day
    2. Give four reasons for your answer in (a) above
    3. Name two factors that cause dormancy in seeds
  10.   
    1. Distinguish between epigeal and hypogeal germination (1 mark)
    2. Why is oxygen necessary in the germination of seeds? (2 marks)
  11. An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of hormones on growth of lateral buds of three pea plants
    The shoots were treated as follows:
    Shoot A - Apical bud was removed
    Shoot B - Apical bud was removed and gibberellic acid placed on the cut shoot
    Shoot C - Apical bud was left intact.
    The length of the branches developing from the lateral buds were determines at regular intervals
    The results obtained are as shown in the table below
    Time (days) Length of bbranches in mm
    Shoot A Shoot B Shoot C
    0 3 3 3
    2 10 12 3
    4 28 48 8
    6 50 90 14
    8 80 120  20
    10  118  152  26

    1. Using the same axes, draw graphs to show the length of branches against time (8 marks)
    2.   
      1. What was the length of the branch in shoot B on the 7th day? ( 1 mark)
      2. What would be the expected length of the branch developing from shoot A on the 11th day? ( 1 mark)
    3. Account for the results obtained in the experiment ( 6 marks)
    4. Why was shoot C included in the experiment? ( 1 mark)
    5. What is the importance of gibberallic acid in agriculture? ( 1 mark)
    6. State two physiological processes that are brought about by the application of gibberellic acid on plants. ( 2 marks)
  12.   
    1. State tow environmental conditions that can cause seed dormancy
    2. Name the part of a bean seed that elongates to bring about epigeal germination (1 mark)
  13.   
    1. “True growth is not simply an increase in size” State four different ways in which true may be defined.
    2. State two external factors, which influence growth in plants and describe one effect of each.
    3. Fill in the spaces in the following table, which refers to hormones involved in growth processes.
       Name hormone Site of hormone production  Effect 
         Thyroid gland  
           Maturation of Graafin follicles
       Auxins    
       Gibberellins    
  14. Seedling from 100g of maize seed was grown in the dark for 10 days. The seedlings were then analyzed and compared with 100g of ingeminated maize. The following results were obtained.
      Dry mass of ingeminated seeds Dry mass of seedling after 10 days
    Cellulose
    Starch
    Other organic
    Material Ash
    2g
    63g
    13g
    2g
    5g
    9g
    27g
    4g
    Total dry mass  80g  45g

    1. Why is dry mass used for comparison?
    2. How would one ensure that the drying process had been completed
    3. Account for the decrease in the total dry mass of the seedlings
    4. Why did the seedling contain more cellulose than the underminated seeds?
    5. What is the most likely source of the carbon used to form this new cellulose?

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Biology Form 4 Topical Revision Questions and Answers

Biology Form 4 Topical Revision Questions and Answers (4)

For the preparation of national and local exams, get biology form 4 topical revision questions with answers for free. These biology topical revision questions are aggregated from the various high school KICD approved textbooks, including KLB biology form 4, Finder biology form 4, Mentors biology form 4, Spotlight biology form 4, Moran biology form 4, Pearsons biology form 4, etc. The biology topical revision questions with answers cover various topics, as shown below.

The form 4 biological concepts that you can revise with these topical revision questions include;

  1. Genetics
  2. Evolution
  3. Reception, Response and Co-ordination in Plants and Animals
  4. Support and Movement in Plants and Animals

You can get the topical revision questions for free without having to pay a cent on our Easy Elimu Study App, which you can get from the Google Playstore here.

As a bonus, if you need to refresh your knowledge on a topic, EasyElimu has summarized notes, so you won’t have to stress over looking for notes, which makes passing that summative biology form 4 term 3 exam easy. Whether it’s term 1, 2 or 3, these free biology form 4 revision topical questions will give you that grade A.

Visit the EasyElimu App to get the answers to the topical revision questions for free.
Alternatively, click the blue download button on this page to download, in PDF format, the specific topical revision questions with answers

Questions per topic

Genetics Questions and Answers - Biology Form 4 Topical Revision

  1. The figure below is a structural diagram of a portion from a nucleic acid strand.
    genetics q1
    1. Giving a reason, name the nucleic acid to which the portion belongs. (2 marks)
      Name _________________________
      Reason ________________________
    2. Write down the sequence of bases of a complimentary strand to that shown above (1 mark)
  2. State two structural differences between ribonucleic acid ( RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) (2 marks)
  3. Name a disorder of human blood that is caused by mutation (1 mark)
  4. State the function of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule (1 mark)
  5. Give a reason why it is only mutation in genes of gametes that influence evolution ( 2 marks)
  6. In an experiment, red flower were crossed with plants with white flower. All the plants in the F1 generation had pink flowers.
    1. (Give a reason for the appearance of pink flower in the F1 generation ( 1 mark)
    2. If the plants from F1 generation were selfed, state the phenotype ratio of the F2 generation ( 2 marks)
  7. State two characteristics that researchers select in breading programmes. (2 marks)
  8. Give an example of sex- linked trait in humans on; ( 2 marks)
    Y chromosome __________________
    X chromosome __________________
  9. In an experiment, a variety of garden peas having a smooth seed oat was crossed with a variety with a wrinkled seed coat. All the seeds obtained in the F1 had a smooth seed coat. The F1 generation was selfed. The total number of F2 generation was 7324.
    1. Using appropriate letter symbols, work out the genotype of the F1 generation. ( 4 marks)
    2. From the information above, work out the following for the F2 generation
      1. Genotype ratio ( 2 marks)
      2. Phenotype ratio ( 1 mark)
      3. Wrinkled number ( 1 mark)
  10. In a certain plant species, some individual plant may have white, red or pink flower. In an experiment a plant with white parent plant were pure lines. All the plants from F1 generation were pink. Using letter R to represent the gene for red colour and letter W for white colour;
    1. Work out the genotype of F1 generation ( 3 marks)
    2. If the plants from F1 generation were selfed, what would be the phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation? ( 3 marks)
    3. What is the genetic explanation for the absence of plants with red and white in the flower F1 generation? ( 2 marks)
  11. In a breeding experiment, plants with red flower were crossed. They produced 123 plants with red flowers and 41 with white flowers.
    1. Identify the recessive character. Give a reason
    2. What were the genotypes of the parent plants that give rise to the plants with red and white flowers?
    3. If the white flowers were selfed, what would be the genotypes of their offspring?

  12.   
    1. Name two disorders in humans caused by gene mutation (2 marks)
    2. Describe the following chromosomal mutations
      1. Inversion ( 2 marks)
      2. Translocation
    3. In mice the allele for black fur is dominant to the allele for brown fur. What percentage offspring would have brown fur from a cross between heterozygous black mice and brown mice? Show your working. Use letter B to represent the allele for black colour. (4 marks)
  13.   
    1. What is meant by the term allele? ( 1 mark)
    2. Explain how the following occur during gene mutation
      1. Deletion ( 1 mark)
      2. Inversion ( 1 mark)
    3. What is a test- cross? ( 1 mark)
  14. In maize the gene for purple colour is dominant to the gene for white colour. A pure breeding maize plant with purple grains was crossed with a heterozygous plant.
    1.   
      1. Using letter G to represent the gene for purple colour, work out the genotypic ratio of the offspring ( 5 marks)
      2. State the phenotype of the offspring ( 1 mark)
    2. What is genetic engineering? ( 1 mark)
  15. Define the following terms as used in genetics.
    1. Alleles
    2. Genotype
    3. Phenotype
  16. A farmer mated his dark red cow with a white bull. The cow gave birth to a light red calf
    1. State why the calf is light red and not dark red or white
    2. If a light red bull is mated with a dark red cow, work out using appropriate letter symbols the probability of getting a light offspring
    1. What is meant by linked genes?
    2.   
      1. In fruit flies (Drosophila) the gene for red eyes ® is dominant over the one for white – eye (r). If a true breeding white – eyed male, all the offspring will be red eyed. However, if a true – breeding whiteeyed female is mated with a true- breeding red- eyed male, all the female offspring will be red – eyed. Explain this apparent contradiction.
      2. Work out the ratio of the expected phenotypes if a red- eyed female offspring from the cross- described in (i) above is mated with red- eyed males.
  17.   
    1. Explain the term variation with reference to the study of genetics.
    2. Using relevant examples distinguish between discontinuous variation and continuous variation
    3. What is the importance of genetic variation?
    4. Describe one example where genetic variations has helped a species to survive
  18. The diagram below shows the base sequence of part of a nucleic acid stand. Observe it and answer the questions that follow
    G T T A G C T G A
    1. What do the letters G, T , C and A represent?
    2. Giving your reasons state whether it is part of DNA or an RNA strand.
    3. Show the complementary DNA strand
    4. Show the complimentary RNA strand
  19. In human couples the sex of a baby is determined by the man. Explain this statement.

Evolution Questions and Answers - Biology Form 4 Topical Revision

  1. State the difference between Lamarckian and Darwinian theories of evolution
  2. Two populations of the same species of birds were separated over a long period of time by an ocean. Both populations initially fed on insects only. Later it was observed that one population fed entirely on fruits and seeds. Although insect were available. Name this type of evolutionary change.
  3. Explain why Lamarck’s theory of evolution is not accepted by biologists today
  4. State three pieces of evidence that support the theory of evolution. (3 marks)
  5. state two advantages of natural selection to organisms (2 marks)
  6. Give a reason why each of the following is important in the study of evolution
    1. Fossils records
    2. Comparative anatomy
  7. Describe how natural selection brings about adaptation of a species to its environment (6 marks)
  8. Explain how the process of evolution may result to the formation of new species
  9. What is meant by
    1. organic evolution (1 mark)
    2. continental drift (1 mark)
  10. Explain continental drift as an evidence of evolution (3 marks)
  11.   
    1. What is a test- cross? (2 marks)
    2. Give a reason why organisms become resistant to drugs (1 mark)
  12. Distinguish between the following terms
    1. Homologous structures
    2. Analogous structures (4 marks)
  13.   
    1. What is meant by natural selection?
    2. Explain the role played by mutation in evolution (5 marks)
  14. Define the following terms
    1. Hybrid
    2. Hybrid vigour
  15. The peppered moth exists in two varieties, which are genetically controlled. The dark variety is found predominantly in industrial cities and the white variety is found predominantly in rural areas. Explain how this pattern of distribution supports the theory of evolution by natural selection (6 marks)
  16. Explain what is meant by the following concepts
    1. Special creation (2 marks)
    2. Organic evolution (2 marks)

Reception, Response and Co-ordination Questions and Answers - Biology Form 4 Topical Revision

  1. State one structural and one functional differences between motor and sensory neurons
    Structural differences
    Functional differences ( 2 marks)
  2. The table below shows two mammalian hormones. For each hormone, state the site of production and its function in the body.
    Hormone  Site of production  Function
    Oestrogen    
    Aldosterone    
  3. The diagram below represents a motor neurone.
    receptionq3
    1. With an arrow, indicate on the diagram the direction of the impulse through the neurone ( 1 mark)
    2. State the functions of parts labeled P and Q ( 2 marks)
  4.   
    1. How are structures of the human eye adapted to their functions (14 marks)
    2. State three defects of the eye and how each can be corrected (6 marks)
  5. State the changes that occur in a nerve axon to produce an action potential (3 marks)
  6. In an accident a victim suffered brain injury. Consequently he had loss of memory. Which part of the brain was damaged? ( 1 mark)
  7. The diagram below shows surface view of a human brain
    receptionq7
    1. Name the parts labeled B and C ( 2 marks)
    2. State three functions of the part labeled A ( 3 marks)
    3. State what would happen if the part labeled B was damaged. ( 1 mark)
  8. What is the function of the following cells in the retina of the human eye? (2 marks)
    1. Cones
    2. Rods
  9.   
    1. State the functions of the following parts of the mammalian ear
      1. Tympanic membrane ( 3 marks)
      2. Eustachian tube ( 1 mark)
      3. Ear ossicles ( 2 marks)
    2. Describe how semi- circular canals perform their functions ( 2 marks)
  10. State the importance of tactic response among some members of Kingdom Protoctista? ( 1 mark)
  11.   
    1. What name is given to response to contact with surface exhibited by tendrils and climbing stems in plants? ( 1 mark)
    2. State three biological importances of tropisms to plants (3 marks)
  12. The diagram below represents a reflex arc in human
    reflex arc
    1. Name the parts labeled X and Y ( 2 marks)
      X __________________________
      Y __________________________
    2. Name the substance that is responsible for the transmission of an impulse across the synapse ( 1 mark)
  13.   
    1. State the function of the ciliary muscles in the human eye. (1 mark)
    2. State two functional differences between the rods and cones in the human eye (2 marks)
  14. State the function of each of the following parts of human ear ( 4 marks)
    1. Ear ossicles
    2. Cochlea
    3. Semi- circular canals
    4. Eustachian tube
  15.   
    1. Where in the human body are relay neurons found? ( 1 mark)
    2. The diagram below represents a neurone
      neurone
      1. Name the neurone ( 1 mark)
      2. Name the parts labeled P and Q ( 2 marks)
  16.   
    1. Name the hormone that is responsible for apical dominance (1 mark)
    2. What is thigmotropism? (1 mark)
  17. Describe the structure and functions of the various parts of the human ear (20 marks)
  18. Nocturnal animals such as the owl are capable of seeing fairly well at night
    What two retinal adaptations have made this possible? (2 marks)
  19. State two functions of the human ear? (2 marks)
  20. State four differences between co- ordination of the human eye’s internal response to light and that of tropic movement of the flowering plant in response to light. (4 marks)
  21. The figure below shows a stem of a plant growing round a tree trunk
    thigmotropism
    1. What is the name of the response, which causes the twisted growth? (1 mark)
    2. Explain how the twisting process is accomplished (2 marks)
    3. Identify the state of leaves if the plant is autotrophic (2 marks)
  22. Euglena is positively phototactic. Of what biological significance is this characteristics? (1 mark)
  23. State the function of acetylcholine (2 marks)
  24. Where in the human body is the relay neurone located? ( 1 mark)
  25. State three effects of nicotine to human health (3 marks)
  26. state the part of the eye involved in
    1. Colour vision
    2. Maintaining shape of the eyeball
    3. Change in diameter of the lens

Support and Movement in Plants and Animals Questions and Answers - Biology Form 4 Topical Revision

  1. The diagram below represents in a mammalian bone
    1. State the function of the part labeled K and L ( 2 marks)
    2. State the region of the body in which the bone is found ( 1 mark)
  2. State two ways in which skeletal muscle fibres are adapted to the function (2 marks)
  3. The diagram below shows the arrangement of bones and muscles in a human arm.
    1. Name the parts of the bone labeled K ( 1 mark)
    2. How do the muscles work to extend the arm? ( 3 marks)
  4. State three structural differences between biceps muscles and muscles of the gut
      Biceps Gut muscles
    (i)
    (ii)
    (iii)
    (iv)
       
  5.  
    femur
    1. Name the bone ( 1 mark)
    2. Name the type of joint formed by the bone at its anterior end with the adjacent bone (1 mark)
  6. Give a reason why the lumbar vertebrae have long and abroad transverse processes ( 2 marks)
  7.   
    1. Name the three types of skeletons found in multicellular animals (3 marks)
    2. Describe how the cervical, lumbar and sacral vertebrae are suited to their functions (17 marks)
  8. A bone obtained from a mammal is represented by the diagram below
    ulna
    1. Name the bone ( 1 mark)
    2. Which bones articulate with the bone shown in the diagram at the notch? (2 marks)
  9.   
    1. Name the cartilage between the bones of the vertebral column (1 mark)]
    2. State the function of the cartilage in (a) above ( 1 mark)
  10. How are xylem vessels adapted for support? ( 1 mark)
  11. The diagram below represents bones at a joint found in the hind limb of a mammal
    hind limb of a mammal
    1. Name the bones labeled X, Y, and Z ( 3 marks)
      X _______________________
      Y _______________________
      Z _______________________
    2.   
      1. Name the substance found in the place labeled W (1 mark)
      2. State the function of the substance named in (b) (i) above
    3. Name the structure that joins the bones together at the joint (1 mark)
    4. State the differences between ball and socket joint and the one illustrated in the diagram above (1 mark)
    5. Name the structure at the elbow that performs the same functions as the patella (1 mark)
  12.   
    1. State a characteristic that is common to all cervical vertebrae
    2. Name two tissues in plants that provide mechanical support (2 marks)
  13.   
    1. Name the three types of muscles found in mammals and give an example of where each on of them is found
    2. State the difference between ball and socket and hinge joint (1 mark)
  14. State three functions of an insects exoskeleton (3 marks)
  15. State the function of the following fins of a fish
    1. Dorsal fin (1 mark)
    2. Pectoral and pelvic fins (1 mark)
    3. Caudal fin (1 mark)
  16. State the diagnostic features of the cardiac muscles (3 marks)
  17. The following figure is a part of a pelvic girdle known as the innominate bone
    cardiac muscles
    1. Make a complete drawing of the girdle (1 mark)
    2. Name the bones that articulate with the pelvic girdle. In each case name the part that articulates with (2 marks)
  18. Distinguish between tendons and ligaments (2 marks)
  19. Explain what antagonistic muscles are and give an example (4 marks)
  20.   
    1. Name three types of strengthening tissues found in plants (3 marks)
    2. Explain how the tissue in (a) above are adapted to their functions (3 marks)
  21.   
    1. Name the three main types of joint ( 3 marks)
    2. Give an example of where each type of joint name in (a) above is found in the human body ( 3 marks)
  22. What makes young herbaceous plant remain upright? ( 2 marks)]
  23. Name three types of muscles found in the human body, state where each type is located and how each is adapted to its functions. ( 12 marks)

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