Support and Movement in Plants and Animals Questions and Answers - Biology Form 4 Topical Revision

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  1. The diagram below represents in a mammalian bone
    1. State the function of the part labeled K and L ( 2 marks)
    2. State the region of the body in which the bone is found ( 1 mark)
  2. State two ways in which skeletal muscle fibres are adapted to the function (2 marks)
  3. The diagram below shows the arrangement of bones and muscles in a human arm.
    1. Name the parts of the bone labeled K ( 1 mark)
    2. How do the muscles work to extend the arm? ( 3 marks)
  4. State three structural differences between biceps muscles and muscles of the gut
      Biceps Gut muscles
    1. Name the bone ( 1 mark)
    2. Name the type of joint formed by the bone at its anterior end with the adjacent bone (1 mark)
  6. Give a reason why the lumbar vertebrae have long and abroad transverse processes ( 2 marks)
    1. Name the three types of skeletons found in multicellular animals (3 marks)
    2. Describe how the cervical, lumbar and sacral vertebrae are suited to their functions (17 marks)
  8. A bone obtained from a mammal is represented by the diagram below
    1. Name the bone ( 1 mark)
    2. Which bones articulate with the bone shown in the diagram at the notch? (2 marks)
    1. Name the cartilage between the bones of the vertebral column (1 mark)]
    2. State the function of the cartilage in (a) above ( 1 mark)
  10. How are xylem vessels adapted for support? ( 1 mark)
  11. The diagram below represents bones at a joint found in the hind limb of a mammal
    hind limb of a mammal
    1. Name the bones labeled X, Y, and Z ( 3 marks)
      X _______________________
      Y _______________________
      Z _______________________
      1. Name the substance found in the place labeled W (1 mark)
      2. State the function of the substance named in (b) (i) above
    3. Name the structure that joins the bones together at the joint (1 mark)
    4. State the differences between ball and socket joint and the one illustrated in the diagram above (1 mark)
    5. Name the structure at the elbow that performs the same functions as the patella (1 mark)
    1. State a characteristic that is common to all cervical vertebrae
    2. Name two tissues in plants that provide mechanical support (2 marks)
    1. Name the three types of muscles found in mammals and give an example of where each on of them is found
    2. State the difference between ball and socket and hinge joint (1 mark)
  14. State three functions of an insects exoskeleton (3 marks)
  15. State the function of the following fins of a fish
    1. Dorsal fin (1 mark)
    2. Pectoral and pelvic fins (1 mark)
    3. Caudal fin (1 mark)
  16. State the diagnostic features of the cardiac muscles (3 marks)
  17. The following figure is a part of a pelvic girdle known as the innominate bone
    cardiac muscles
    1. Make a complete drawing of the girdle (1 mark)
    2. Name the bones that articulate with the pelvic girdle. In each case name the part that articulates with (2 marks)
  18. Distinguish between tendons and ligaments (2 marks)
  19. Explain what antagonistic muscles are and give an example (4 marks)
    1. Name three types of strengthening tissues found in plants (3 marks)
    2. Explain how the tissue in (a) above are adapted to their functions (3 marks)
    1. Name the three main types of joint ( 3 marks)
    2. Give an example of where each type of joint name in (a) above is found in the human body ( 3 marks)
  22. What makes young herbaceous plant remain upright? ( 2 marks)]
  23. Name three types of muscles found in the human body, state where each type is located and how each is adapted to its functions. ( 12 marks)


    1. K - Facet for articulation, with the next vertebra
      L - Transverse process for attachment of muscles
    2. Cervical or neck region
  2. - Skeletal muscles have actin and myosin which facilitate concentration and relaxation.
    - High density of mitochondria to provide energy for contraction.
    - Elongated fibres to allow change in length
    1. Ball and socket joint
    2. Biceps (flexor muscles) relax triceps (extensor muscles) contract.
      Biceps Gut muscles
    Long fibre
    Un- striated
    Un- nucleated
    Short fibred
    Spindle shaped
    1. Femur
    2. Ball and socket joint
    • Attachment of powerful back muscles
    • Maintain posture
    • Maintain flexibility of vertebral column
      • Hydrostatic
      • Exoskeleton
      • Endoskeleton
    2. Cervical vertebrae
      - Presence of vertebraterial canal for passage of vertebral artery. Atlas had (broad) surfaces, for articulation with condyles of skull to permit nodding
      - Axis has adontoid process/ projection Centrum to permit rotary/ turning.
      - Act as a pivot for atlas.
      - Branched/ forked/ short and broad transverse processes for attachment of neck muscles
      - Presence of zygopophysis for articulation between vertebrae
      - Has short reduced neural spine for attachment of neck muscles. Has wide neural canal for passage of spinal cord and protect it.

      - Broad / long neural spine for attachment of powerful back muscles.
      - Large and well developed transverse processes for attachment of muscles
      - Has metamorphosis and hypothesis for muscle attachment. Large thick centrum for support.
      - Prezygopophysis and post zygopophysis present for articulation between vertebrae

      Sacral vertebrae
      - Interior has well developed transverse processes which are fused to the pelvic girdle.
      - Vertebrae fused for strength transmit weight of the stationary animal to the rest of the body
      - Sacrum has a broad base/ short neural spine for attachment of back muscles
    1. Ulna
    2. Radius
      - Humerus
    1. Inter- vertebral discs/ Fibro cartilage
    2. Absorb shock and reduce friction between the bones
  10. Side walls have deposition of lignin to strengthen them
    1. X- Femur
      Y- Tibia
      Z- Fibula
      1. Synovial fluid
      2. Absorb shock/ reduce friction between joints
    3. Ligament
    4. Ball and socket – allow movement in all direction
      Hinge joint- Allow movement in one plane only
    5. Sigmoid notch
    1. Have short neural spines
    2. - Xylem tissues
      - Collenchymas tissues
      - Sclerenchyma tissues
      - Parenchyma tissues
      Type of muscle  Where found
      (i) Skeletal Attached bones and skeleton
      (ii) Smooth Walls of tubular structures
      (iii) Cardiac Heart muscles
    2. Ball and socket joint – allows movement in all directions i.e 3600
      Hinge joint- Allows movement only on one plane i.e 1800
    3.  It is a slippery fluid that lubricates the joints reducing friction during movement.
    4.  - Prevents drying out of organism
      - Controls size of the organism
      - Provides protection against microbial infections and mechanical injury.
    • Support and protects inner delicate tissues
    • Prevents excessive loss of water from body tissues
    • Provides surfaces for muscle attachment.
    1. Dorsal fin – Prevented rolling or yawing
    2.  Pectoral and pelvic fins- used for steering and prevent pitching
    3. Caudal fin – steering and forward propulsion

    • Contract spontaneously and do not fatigue.
    • Innervated by the autonomic nervous system
    • Contractions are initiated from within the muscles
    • Thy are myogenic
      cardiac muscles ans17a
    2. Femur – Articulates with acetabulum
      Sacrum – articulates with ilium
  18. Tendons – Tissues between muscles and bone in a joint
    Ligaments – Tissues between bone and another bone in a joint
  19. They are muscles that contract while the others relax e.g triceps and biceps muscles.
    1. - Xylem vessels
      - Collenchyma
      - Sclerenchyma
    2. Xylem- lignified on the side walls
      Collenchyma – thickened by deposition of cellulose and pectic compounds
      Sclerenchyma – lignified on the cell walls.
    1. - Immovable joints
      - Synovial (movable) joints)
      - Glinding/ sliding joints
    2. - Immovable joint – Cranium / skull
      - Synovial joint – between limbs
      - Glinding / sliding joint- vertebral column
  22. - Turgidity of the parenchyma cells
    - Presence of collenchyma tissues
  23. Skeletal muscle
    • Attached to the skeleton
    • They are striated/ fibres that allow contractions
    • Presence of mitochondria to provide energy for contractions
    • Have antagonistic contractions to enhance movement

    Cardiac muscle
    • They are the heart muscles
    • Highly connective tissues to allow harmonious contraction
    • They do not fatigue
    • Ends are intercalated to transmit impulses throughout the heart

    Smooth muscle
    • Walls of tubular organs
    • Capable contracting slowly
    • Innervated by autonomic nervous
    • System/ involuntary movement
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