Sentences - English Grammar Notes

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What is a Sentence?

  • A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. A complete thought is clear. A sentence always begins with a capital letter. It ends with a full stop (.), a question mark (?) or an exclamation mark (!).

    • Ted sent me a letter.
    • Jane slept soundly.

Sentence Fragments

  • A sentence fragment does not express a complete thought. The reader or listener cannot be sure what is missing in or the meaning of a sentence fragment.
  • He or she will be left wondering: What is this about? What happened?

    Fragment: The huge boat. (What happened?)
    Sentence: The huge boat sails down the river.
  • You can correct a sentence fragment by supplying the missing information.

Subjects and Predicates

  • The two fundamental parts of every English sentence are the subject and the predicate. A subject can be described as the component that performs the action described by the predicate. It tells who or what does or did the action. It may also name the topic.
  • The predicate tells about the subject. It tells what the subject does or is.


    Subject                         Predicate
    (Who or what)              (What is said about the subject)
    The antelope                 jumped over the high fence.
    Pigs                              eat anything is sight when hungry.
  • In a sentence, a few key words are more important than the rest. These key words make the basic framework of the sentence. The verb and its subject are the key words that form the basic framework of every sentence. The rest of the sentence is built around them.


    Sentence                                                       Key words
    • The young kids jumped playfully.          kids, jumped
    • Their faces shone brightly.                    faces, shone
  • To find out the subject, ask who or what before the verb.

    • Who jumped playfully? – kids
    • What shone brightly? – faces
  • To find out the verb, ask what after the subject.

    • The young kids did what? – jumped
    • Their faces did what? – shone
  • The key word in the subject of a sentence is called the simple subject. For example, kids, faces. The complete subject is the simple subject plus any words that modify or describe it. For example, The young kids, Their faces.
  • The key word in the predicate is called the simple predicate. For example, jumpedshone. The complete predicate is the verb plus any words that modify or complete the verb’s meaning. For example, jumped playfully, shone brightly.
  • The simple subjects and predicates may sometimes be more than one word. For simple subjects, it may be the name of a person or a place.

    • Barrack Obama won the US presidential race.
    • South Africa is the home of many bats.
  • The simple predicate may also be more than one word. There may be a main verb and a helping verb.

    • Tanya has acted in many TV shows.
    • She will be performing again tonight.


  • An object in a sentence is a word or words that complete the meaning of a sentence. It is involved in the action but does not carry it out. The object is the person or thing affected by the action described in the verb. It is always a noun or a pronoun and it always comes after the verb.

    - The man climbed a tree.
  • Some verbs complete the meaning of sentences without the help of other words. The action that they describe is complete.

    - It rained.
    - The temperature rose.
  • Some other verbs do not express a complete meaning by themselves. They need to combine with other words to complete the meaning of a sentence.

    - Christine saw the snake.
    - Rose wears goggles.
    - He opened the door.
  • In the above examples, the snake, goggles and the door are the objects as they are the things being affected by the verbs in the sentences. (Refer to the topic on Transitive and Intransitive Verbs under the main topic VERBS).

Exercise 1

Which groups of words are sentences and which ones are sentence fragments?

  1. A huge storm was coming.
  2. Behind the wattle tree.
  3. After the earthquake.
  4. The wind broke several houses.
  5. Surprised by a loud noise.
  6. Winds of high speed.
  7. Rescue workers arrived.
  8. From different parts of the world.
  9. Many people were injured.
  10. In the weeks after the earthquake.

Direct and Indirect Objects

  • Objects come in two types, direct and indirect:

Direct objects

  • The direct object is the word that receives the action of a verb.

    - Christine saw a snake. ( a snake receives the action of saw)
    - Rose wears goggles. (goggles receives the action of wears)
  • Sometimes the direct object tells the result of an action.

    - Tecla won the race.
    - She received a trophy.
  • To find the direct object first find the verb. Then ask whom or what after the verb.

    Christine saw a snake. 
    Verb: saw 
    Saw what? a snake

    Tecla won the race 
    Verb: won 
    Won what? the race
    Rose wears goggles
    verb: wears
    wears what? goggles

    She received a trophy
    verb: received
    received what? a trophy
  • Remember, we said earlier that a verb that has a direct object is called a transitive verb and a verb that does not have an object is called an intransitive verb. We also said that a verb may be intransitive in one sentence and transitive in another. Other verbs are strictly intransitive like disagree.

Indirect Objects

  • The indirect object refers to a person or thing who receives the direct object. They tell us for whom or to whom something is done. Others tell to what or for what something is done.

    - I gave him the book.
    Him is the indirect object as he is the beneficiary of the book.

Direct Object or Adverb?

  • Direct objects are sometimes confused with adverbs. The direct object tells what or whom as we have seen earlier. Adverbs on the other hand tell how, where, when or to what extentThey modify the verbs.

    - Brian Swam slowly. (slowly is an adverb telling how)
    - Brian Swam a tough race. (race is a direct object telling what).
  • Verbs can also be followed by a phrase that tells how, when, or where. This kind of a phrase is never a direct object but an adverbial phrase.

    - Brian swam across the pool. (a cross the pool tells where Brian Swam).
  • Therefore, to decide whether a word or a phrase is a direct object or adverb, decide first what it tells about the verb. If it tells how, where, when or to what extent, it is an adverb. If it tells what or whom, it is a direct object.

Exercise 2

Identify the objects or the adverbs/adverbial phrases in the following sentences. If the sentence has two objects, indicate the direct object and the indirect object.

  1. Nanu sings pop music.
  2. Nanu sings sweetly.
  3. He spoke very quietly.
  4. I have read that book three times.
  5. She has gone to the bank.
  6. David gave her a present.
  7. David disagreed bitterly.
  8. The player sat on his heels.
  9. She made a list of the items to buy.
  10. They offered him help.



  • Some sentences do not take objects or adverbs (or adverbial phrases) after the verbs. Instead, they take complements. A complement is the part of the sentence that gives more information about the subject (subject complement) or about the object (object complement) of the sentence.

Subject Complements

  • Subject complements normally follow certain verbs like be, seem, look, etc.


- He is British. (British gives more information about he)
- She became
a nurse. (nurse gives more information about she)

Object Complements

  • Object complements follow the direct objects of the verb and give more information about those direct objects.

    - They painted the house red. (red is a complement giving more information about the direct object house)
    - She called him an idiot. (an idiot is a complement giving more information about the direct object he).
  • The complement often consists of an adjective (e.g. red) or a noun phrase (e.g. an idiot) but can also be a participle phrase.

    - I saw her standing there. (standing there is a complement telling more about her).

Exercise 3

Pick out the complements in the following sentences and indicate whether subject, object or participial complements.

  1. The tourist is a German citizen.
  2. She seems a very arrogant lady.
  3. You look tired.
  4. They painted the car green.
  5. James nicknamed Lucy the queen.
  6.  I saw him stealing the mango.
  7. They beat the thief senseless.
  8. The priest looks a kind person.
  9. We left her crying.
  10. Job left her trembling.




Types of Sentences

  • Sentences can be categorised in terms of structure or in terms of purpose.

(A) In terms of Structure

  • Sentences can be categorised into 3 main types:
    1. Simple sentences
    2. Compound sentences
    3. Complex sentences.

(i) Simple Sentences

  • A simple sentence contains a single subject and predicate. It describes only one thing, idea or question, and has only one verb. It contains only an independent (main) clause.
  • Any independent clause can stand alone as a sentence. It has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.

    - Bill reads.
    - Jack plays football.
  • Even the addition of adverbs, adjectives and prepositional phrases to a simple sentence does not change its structure.
    - The white dog with the black collar always barks loudly.
  • Even if you join several nouns with a conjunction, or several verbs with a conjunction, it remains a simple sentence.

    - The dog barked and growled loudly.

(ii) Compound Sentences

  • A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences joined together using a co-ordinating conjunction such as and, or or but

    - The sun was setting in the west and the moon was just rising.
  • Each clause can stand alone as a sentence.

    The sun was setting in the west. The moon was just rising.
  • Every clause is like a sentence with a subject and a verb. A coordinating conjunction goes in the middle of the sentence; it is the word that joins the two clauses together.

    Other examples:
    - I walked to the shops, but my wife drove there.
    - I might watch the film, or I might visit my aunt.
    - My friend enjoyed the film, but she didn’t like the actor.

  • Two simple sentences should be combined to form one compound sentence only if the ideas they express are closely related. If the ideas are not closely related, the resulting sentence may not make sense.

    Incorrect: The car is old, and Dan likes sociology.
    Correct: The car is old, but it functions superbly.

Punctuating Compound Sentences

  • When writing some compound sentences, a comma is used before the conjunction.
  • The comma tells the reader where to pause. Without a comma, some compound sentences can be quite confusing.

    Confusing: Jane studied the specimen and her sister took notes. (The sentence might cause the reader to think that Jane studied both the specimen and her sister)

    Better: Jane studied the specimen, and her sister took notes. (The comma makes the sentence to be clear)
  • Sometimes the parts of a compound sentence can be joined with a semicolon (;) rather than a comma and a conjunction.

    Jane studied the specimen; her sister took notes.
  • Never join simple sentences with a comma alone. A comma is not powerful enough to hold the sentences together. Instead use a semicolon.


    Incorrect: My father enjoyed the meal, he didn’t like the soup.
    Correct: My father enjoyed the meal; he didn’t like the soup.
    Correct: My father enjoyed the meal, but he didn’t like the soup.

(iii) Complex Sentences

  • A complex sentence contains one independent (main) clause and one or more subordinate (dependent) clauses. They describe more than one thing or idea and have more than one verb in them. They are made up of more than one clause, an independent clause (that can stand by itself) and a dependent clause (which cannot stand by itself).

    - The picture looks flat because it is colourless.
    (The picture looks flat is the independent (main) clause whereas because it is colourless is the subordinate (dependent) clause)

What is a Clause?

  • A clause is a group of words that contains a verb and its subject. There are two types of clauses – main clauses and subordinate clauses.

Main clauses

  • A main clause is a clause that can stand as sentence by itself. A compound sentence contains two or more main clauses, because it is made up of two or more simple sentences.
  • Each of these simple sentences is a main clause.

    Robots operate machines, and they solve many labour problems.
    Robots operate machines and they solve many labour problems are both main clauses.
  • They are also simple sentences. Main clauses are sometimes called independent clauses.

Subordinate clauses

  • Subordinate clauses are clauses that do not express a complete thought. So they cannot stand by themselves.

    - If technology will improve           
    - When robots can do the work
    - While electronics will work           
    - After the system is complete.
  • None of the above clauses express a complete thought. They are sentence fragments that leave the reader wondering then what?
  • Subordinate clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions such as if, whenwhile, and after.

    Other examples of subordinating conjunctions:
    as if 
    as long as 
    as though
    in order that 
    so that 

  • Now we can understand a complex sentence better. We have said that it contains one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
    Main clause  subordinate clause
    The bell started ringing 
    The battery needs recharging 
    before we were out of bed.
    so that it can work tonight.
  • The subordinate clause can sometimes appear before the main clauses.

    • When the power failed, the computer stopped.
    • Before you know it, your flat screen television will be stolen.
  • The subordinate clause can also sometimes appear in between the sentence.

    - The medicine man, who knew many tricks, cheated the man that he had been bewitched.

Types of Subordinate Clauses

  • Subordinate clauses may be used in sentences as adjectives, adverbs and nouns in complex sentences. Such clauses are called adjectival, adverbial and noun clauses respectively. They add variety to one’s writing. They can also make one’s writing more interesting by adding details.

    • Without subordinate clause: The bushman told us about the hidden cave.
    • With subordinate clause: The bushman, who knew the forest well, told us about the hidden cave.

(i) Adjectival Clauses

  • An b acts as an adjective in a sentence, that is, it modifies a noun or a pronoun.

    - The bushman, who knew the forest well, told us about the hidden cave. 
    (who knew the forest well is an adjectival clause that modifies the noun bushman).
    -The bushman told us a legend that involved the cave. (that involved the cave is an adjectival clause that modifies the noun legend).
  • An adjective clause usually comes immediately after the noun it modifies.

    More examples:
    - People still search for the treasure that the pirate hid.
  • As can be seen from the above examples, adjectival clauses, like adjectives, modify nouns or pronouns answering questions like which? or what kind of?
    Adjective Adjective clause
    The red coat  the coat which I bought yesterday
  • Like the adjective red the adjectival clause which I bought yesterday modifies the noun coat. Note than an adjectival clause usually comes after what it modifies while an adjective comes before.

Relative Pronouns

  • Besides use of subordinating conjunctions, adjectival clauses can be introduced by relative pronouns. Relative pronouns are the words who, whom, whose, that and which.
  • These words relate the subordinate clauses to the word it modifies in the main clause.

    - The books that people read were mainly religious.
    - Some fire-fighters never meet the people whom they save.
    - The meat which they ate was rotten.
  • In the last sentence, the relative clause (called so because it is introduced by the relative pronoun which) which they ate modifies the noun meat and answers the question which meat?

    More examples:
    - They are searching for the one who borrowed the book.
  • The relative clause who borrowed the book modifies the pronoun one and answers the question which one?
  • Besides relating the adjectival clause to a noun or pronoun in the main clause, a relative pronoun may also act as the subject, object, predicate pronoun, or object of a preposition in the clause.

    Subject: This is the forest that has a secret cave.
    that is the subject of has)

    Object: The map, which you saw, guides the way.
    (which is the object of saw)

    Object of a preposition: The map leads to the cave of which the bushman spoke.
    (which is the object of the preposition of)
  • In informal writing or speech, you may leave out the relative pronoun when it is not the subject of the adjectival clause, but you should usually include the relative pronoun in formal academic writing.

    Formal: The books that people read were mainly religious.
    Informal: The books people read were mainly religious.

    : The map
    which you saw guides the way.
    Informal: The map you saw guides the way.
  • But never omit the relative pronoun if it is in the clause.

    Correct: This is the forest that has a secret cave.
    Incorrect: This is the forest has a secret cave.
  • Commas are put around adjectival clauses only if they merely add additional information to a sentence.

    - The map, which you saw, shows the way.
  • This adjective clause can be left out without affecting the grammatical structure of the sentence. It is merely adding information to the sentence by telling us which map?
    - The map shows the way.

(ii) Adverbial Clauses

  • An adverbial clause is a subordinate clause which takes the place of an adverb in a sentence. Just like adverbs and adverbial phrases, adverbial clauses answer the questions where, when, how, to what extent, with what goal/result and under what conditions. In addition, an adverbial clause may tell why.
  • Note how an adverb clause can replace an adverb and an adverbial phrase in the following example:

    Adverb: The Prime Minister gave a speech here.
    Adverbial phrase: The Prime Minister gave a speech in the afternoon.
    Adverbial clause: The Prime Minister gave a speech where the workers were striking.
  • Usually, an adverbial clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction like becausewhen, whenever, where, wherever, since, after and so that.
  • Note that a subordinate adverb clause can never stand alone as a complete sentence.

    after they left dining hall
  • The above adverbial clause will leave the reader asking what happened after they left the dining hall?
  • Adverbial clauses express relationships of cause, effect, place, time and condition.


  • Adverb clauses of cause answer the question why?

    - Njoroge wanted to kill his uncle because he had murdered his father.


  • Adverbial clauses of effect answer the question with what goal/result?

    - Njoroge wanted to kill his uncle so that his father’s murder would be avenged.


  • Adverbial clauses of time answer the question when?

    - After Njoroge’s uncle married his mother, he wanted to kill him


  • Adverbial clauses of condition answer the question under what conditions?

    - If the uncle cooperates, Njoroge may decide to pardon him.


  • Adverbial clauses of place answer the question where?

    - Njoroge organised a demonstration where his father’s murder occurred.

- Note that an adverbial clause can appear either before or after the main clause of the sentence.

(iii) Noun Clauses

  • A noun clause is a clause which takes the place of a noun or a noun phrase. It can be used in any way that a noun is used. That is, it can act as the subject, object, object of a preposition, or predicate noun in a sentence. Just like a noun, a noun clause answers the questions who, when, or what?


    As subjects

    Noun: Kamau is unknown
    Noun phrase: Their destination is unknown
    Noun clause: Where they are going is unknown.
    - The noun clause where they are going is the subject of the verb is.

    As objects

    Noun: I know French.
    Noun phrase: I know the three ladies.
    Noun clause: I know that Latin is no longer spoken as a native language.
    - In the first sentence, the noun French acts as the direct object of the verb know. In the third sentence, the entire clause that Latin is no longer spoken as a native language is the direct object of the verb know.

    As objects of the preposition
    Noun: He talked about him.
    Noun phrase: He talked about the funny items.
    Noun phrase: He talked about what you bought at the supermarket.
    - In the first sentence the pronoun him is the object of the preposition about. In the third sentence, what you bought at the supermarket is the object of the preposition about and answers the question about what?

    As predicate nouns
    Her first day in school was what shaped her life.
    - The adverbial clause what shaped her life gives more information about the subject of the sentence Her first day in school.

    Words often used to introduce noun clauses


  • You cannot tell the kind of a clause from the word that introduces it. You can tell the kind of clause only by the way it is used in a sentence. If the clause is used as a noun, it is a noun clause. If the clause is used as a modifier, it is an adjectival clause or an adverbial clause.


- Whoever built the house was not an expert. (noun clause as a subject)
- No one knew where he came from. (noun clauses a direct object)
- He left the construction site whenever he wished. (as an adverbial clause)
- This is the layout which he left behind. (as an adjectival clause).

Exercise 4

Identify the following sentences as simple, compound or complex. If it is a complex sentence, indicate whether it has an adjective, an adverb or a noun subordinate clause.

  1. The hotel is not very old.
  2. The hotel is not very old; it was constructed in 1987.
  3. It has a strange name, but it attracts many tourists.
  4. Whoever broke the mirror will have to pay for it.
  5. The Gor Mahia fans hope that the team will win again.
  6. Did I tell you about the author whom I met?
  7. They are searching for the man stole the cow.
  8. People began riding horses at least five thousand years ago.
  9. Some people watch the moon as though it affects their lives.
  10. Some superstitions developed when people felt helpless about the world around them.
  11. The parachute was really a sail that was designed for skiing.
  12. The moon orbits the earth every 291/2 days.
  13. My dog loves bread crusts.
  14. I always buy bread because my dog loves the crusts.
  15. Whenever lazy students whine, Mrs. Ndegwa throws pieces of chalk at hem.
  16. The lazy students whom Mrs. Ndegwa hit in the head with pieces of chalk complained bitterly.
  17. My dog Shimba, who loves bread crusts, eats them under the kitchen table.
  18. A dog that drinks too much milk will always be alert.
  19. You really do not want to know what Aunt Lucy adds to her stew.
  20. We do not know why, but the principal has been away from school for two months.

(B) In Terms of Purpose

  • We have seen how sentences are categorised into simple, compound and complex depending on their internal structures. Now, we shall see how they can be categorised in terms of purpose.
  • There are five kinds of sentences classified according to their end marks and the different jobs they do:
    1. Declarative sentences
    2. Interrogative sentences
    3. Exclamatory sentences
    4. Imperative sentences
    5. Conditional sentences

(i) Declarative Sentences

  • A declarative sentence simply states a fact or argument without requiring either an answer or action from the reader or listener. It is punctuated with a simple period. (fullstop)

    - Nairobi is the capital of Kenya
    - He asked which path leads back to the park.
    - Deserts are dry.
  • The declarative sentence is the most important type of sentences. You can write an entire essay or report using only declarative sentences, and you should always use them for more often than any other type. Some declarative sentences contain indirect questions but this does not make them into interrogative sentences.

    - He asked which path leads back to the park.

(ii) Interrogative Sentences

  • An interrogative sentence asks a direct question and always ends in a question mark.

    - How many roads lead into Mombasa city?
    - Does money grow on trees?
    - Do you like deserts?
  • Note that an indirect question does not make a sentence interrogative.

    - When was professor Saitoti the Vice President of Kenya?

    - I wonder when Professor Saitoti was the Vice President of Kenya.
  • A direct question requires an answer from the reader or listener, while an indirect question does not. A special type of direct questions is the rhetorical question. A rhetorical question is one that you do not expect the reader or listener to answer.

    - Why did the Mau Mau war take place? Some people argue that it was simply a way of Kenyan Africans saying “enough is enough”.
  • Rhetorical questions can be very effective way to introduce new topics or problems in one’s writing or speech. But if you use them too often, you sound patronising or even monotonous or mediocre!

(iii) Exclamatory Sentences

  • An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feeling, emphasis or emotion. It is actually a more forceful version of a declarative sentence that is marked at the end with an exclamation mark.

    - It was so cold!
    - How beautiful this picture is!
    - You look so lovely tonight!
  • Exclamatory sentences are vey common in speech and sometimes in writing (but rarely).
  • Note that an exclamation mark can appear at the end of an imperative sentence, but this does not make it into an exclamatory sentence.

(iv) Imperative Sentences

  • An imperative sentence gives a direct command to someone. This sentence can end either with a period or with an exclamation mark, depending on how forceful the command is.

    - Sit!
    - Read this book tomorrow.
    - Always carry water.
    - Wash the windows!

  • You should not usually use an exclamation mark with the word “please”.


    - Close that door, please!
    - Please close that door.
  • In an imperative sentence, you is always the subject. It is usually not stated in the sentence. We say that you is the “understood” or “implied” subject.


    - (You) Please bring my camera.
    - (You) Take your medicine before going to bed.


(v) Conditional Sentences

  • A conditional sentence expresses what one would to if a condition were or were not met.
  • The condition in the conditional if-clause will determine the fulfilment of the action in the main clause.

    - If I had a million dollars, I would buy a Hummer.
    - John would be very successful if he had more brains.
  • In sentence 1, the condition of having a million dollars will determine whether the speaker will buy a hummer or not. In sentence, the condition of John not having more brains determines that he is not very successful.

Exercise 5

Label each of the following sentences declarative, imperative, exclamatoryinterrogative or conditional

  1. There is a terrible storm tonight.
  2. Try to cover yourself with a blanket.
  3. How strong the winds are!
  4. If the storm continues, we shall have to go down into the bunker.
  5. Do you think it will rip off the roof?
  6. Look at that that flash of lighting!
  7. What an amazing sight that is!
  8. The night looks dark and scary.
  9. Please tell the children to stop screaming.
  10. Susan will sit beside me if the storm continues.
  11. We are hopeful all will be well.
  12. Dive under the table if it breaks the roof.
  13. How will I find my way?
  14. Can I take a glass of water?
  15. John wants to know what will happen if our house collapses.
  16. There goes the thunder!
  17. We shall have to move to another city if we get out of this alive.
  18. Tell me a good city where we can move to.
  19. The storm is subsiding.
  20. Hooray! Safety at last!





Exercise 1

  1. A huge storm was coming. – sentence
  2. Behind the wattle tree- sentence fragment
  3. After the earthquake – sentence fragment
  4. The wind broke several houses. – sentence
  5. Surprised by a loud noise – sentence fragment
  6. Winds of high speed – sentence fragment
  7. Rescue workers arrived. – sentence
  8. From different parts of the world – sentence fragment
  9. Many people were injured. – sentence
  10. In the weeks after the earthquake – sentence fragment

Exercise 2

  1. pop music – object
  2. sweetly – adverb
  3. very quietly – adverbial phrase
  4. that book – object, three times – adverbial phrase
  5. to the bank- adverbial phrase
  6. her – indirect object, a present – direct object
  7. bitterly – adverb
  8. on his heels – adverbial phrase
  9. a list of the items to buy – object
  10. help – object

Exercise 3

  1. a German citizen – subject complement
  2. a very arrogant lady – subject complement
  3. tired – subject complement
  4. green – object complement
  5. the queen – object complement
  6. stealing the mango – participial complement
  7. senseless – object complement
  8. a kind person – subject complement
  9. crying – participial complement
  10. trembling – participial complement

Exercise 4

  1. Simple sentence
  2. Compound sentence
  3. Compound sentence
  4. Complex – whoever broke the mirror – noun clause
  5. Simple sentence
  6. Complex sentence – whom I met – adjectival clause
  7. Complex sentence – who stole the cow – adjectival clause
  8. Simple sentence
  9. Complex sentence – as though it affects their lives – adverbial clause
  10.  Complex sentence - when people felt helpless about the world around them – adverbial clause.
  11. Complex sentence – that was designed for skiing – adjectival clause
  12. Simple sentence
  13. Simple sentence
  14. Complex sentence – because my dog loves crusts – adverbial clause
  15. Complex sentence – whenever lazy students whine – adverbial clause
  16. Complex sentence – whom Mrs. Ndegwa hit in the head with pieces of chalk – adjectival clause
  17. Complex sentence – who loves bread crusts – adjectival clause
  18. Complex sentence – that drinks too much milk – adjectival clause
  19. Complex sentence – what Aunt Lucy adds to her stew – noun clause
  20. Compound sentence

Exercise 5

  1. Declarative              11. Declarative
  2. Imperative               12. Imperative/conditional
  3. Exclamatory             13. Interrogative
  4. Conditional               14. Interrogative
  5. Interrogative            15. Declarative
  6. Exclamatory             16. Exclamatory
  7. Exclamatory             17. Conditional
  8. Declarative               18. Imperative
  9. Imperative                19. Declarative
  10. Conditional                20. Exclamatory
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