Kenya Certificate Of Secondary Education(KCSE 2013) History Paper 2 with Marking Scheme

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SECTION A (25 marks)
Answer ALL questions in this section.

  1. Give the relationship between “History” and “Government”. (1 mark)
  2. Name two types of dwellings used by the early man during Early Stone Age period. (2 marks)
  3. Give two inventions that led to Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (2 marks)
  4. State one theory of origin about knowledge of iron working in Africa. (1 mark)
  5. Identify the earliest method of trade used during the Trans-Saharan Trade. (1 mark)
  6. State two ways in which Africans participated in the Trans-Atlantic Trade. (2 marks)
  7. Identify two modern means of print media. (2 marks)
  8. State the main factor that led to the growth of the ancient town of Kilwa. (1 mark)
  9. Give one reason why the ‘Golden Stool’ was important in the Asante Empire. (1 mark)
  10. Apart from the empire, name one other type of government that existed in Africa during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)
  11. State two ways in which chief Lewanika of the Lozi collaborated with the British in the late 19th Century. (2 marks)
  12. Name one African community that took part in the Maji Maji uprising between 1905 and 1907. (1 mark)
  13. Identify two roles played by ex-war soldiers in the growth of African nationalism after 1945. (2 marks)
  14. Highlight one way in which economic rivalries between European powers contributed to the outbreak of the first world war.(1 mark)
  15. State the main reason which made Japan to surrender unconditionally to the allied powers in 1945. (1 mark)
  16. State two factors which promote economic relations between nations. (2 marks)
  17. State two ways in which Non-Aligned members safeguard their national security. (2 marks)

    SECTION B (45 marks)
    Answer THREE questions from this section.

    1. Give five reasons why hunting of wild animals was mainly a group activity during the Stone Age Period. (5 marks)
    2. Describe five ways in which the development of the upright posture improved the early man’s way of life. (10 marks)
    1. Identify five uses of coal in during the Industrial Revolution in Europe. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five effects of scientific invention of medicine. (10 marks)
    1. Outline five European activities in Africa during the 19th century. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five effects of the Madinka resistance against the French invasion in the late 19th century. (10 marks)
    1. Identify five contributions made by Kwame Nkurumah of Ghana in promoting Pan-Africanism. (5 marks)
    2. Determine five factors undermining the activities of the African Union (AU) since its formation in 2001. (10 marks)

      SECTION C ( 30 marks)

      Answer TWO questions from this section.
    1. State three similarities between the French and the British structure of administration in Africa during colonial period. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six problems experienced by the French administration in Senegal. (12 marks)
    1. State three ways in which the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) promoted the education of Africans after independence. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six political challenges faced by the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) during the reign of Mobutu Sese Seko. (12 marks)
    1. Identify three circumstances that may make the vice president assume presidency in India. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the president in India. (12 marks)


SECTION A (25 MARKS) Answer ALL the questions in this section

  1. Give the relationship between “History” and “Government”. (1 mark)
    History is the study of man’s past activities while Government is the study of how people are governed.
    1 x 1 =1 mark
  2. Name two types of dwellings used  by the early man during the Early Stone Age period. (2 marks)
    1. Rock shelters;
    2. Tree trunks;
    3. On trees;
    4. Caves/stone caves.
    5. In forest Any 2 x 1 =2 marks
  3. Give two inventions that led to the Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (2 marks)
    1. The seed drill by Jethro Tull;
    2. The horse-drawn hoe by Jethro Tull;
    3. Selective breeding of livestock by Robert Bakewell;
    4. Introduction of fertilizer by Sir John Lawes;
    5. Mechanical thresher by Andrew Melkel;
    6. Mechanical reaper by Patrick Bell. Any 2 x 1 =2 marks
      NB.  For marking purposes, the candidate will get right at the mention of the invention without the inventor.
  4. State one theory of origin about the knowledge of iron working in Africa. (1 mark)
    1. It spread to North Africa from the Middle East/diffusion/one area theory;
    2. It developed independently in different parts of Africa/independent theory.
      1 x 1 = 1 mark
  5. Identify the earliest method of trade used during the Trans-Saharan Trade. (1 mark)
    Barter trade. 1 x 1 =1 mark
  6. State two ways in which Africans participated in the Trans-Atlantic Trade. (2 marks)
    1. They acted as middlemen between Europeans merchants and interior communities;
    2. They acquired /raided slaves;
    3. Rulers sold their own subjects/they were sold as slaves;
    4. They marched slaves to the coast;
    5. They transported trade items to the coast. Any 2 x 1  =2 marks
  7. Identify two modern means of print media. (2 marks)
    1. Newspapers;
    2. Magazines;
    3. Journals;
    4. Periodicals; 
    5. Books;
    6. Brochures;
    7. Braille
    8. Posters
    9. Pamphlets
      Any 2 x 1  =2 marks
  8. State the main factor that led to the growth of ancient town of Kilwa. (1 mark)
    Its control of Sofala gold trade/ trade in gold. 1 x 1  =  1 mark
  9. Give one reason why the Golden Stool was important in the Asante Empire: (1 mark)
    1. It was a symbol/source of unity among the states.
    2. It was considered sacred. 1 x 1  = 1 mark
  10. Apart from an empire, name one other type of government that existed in Africa during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)
    1. The Kingdoms/monarchy;
    2. The Chiefdoms/chieftain;
    3. The Council of elders.
      1 x 1  = 1 mark
  11. State two ways in which Chief Lewanika of the Lozi collaborated with the British in the late 19th Century. (2 marks)
    1. He allowed Christian missionaries to settle/operate in his territory;
    2. He allowed the British to exploit minerals in his land;
    3. He accepted the British protection over his territory;
    4. He allowed a British resident to perform administrative duties in the area.
      Any 2 x 1  = 2 marks
  12. Name one African Community that took part in the Maji Maji uprising between 1905 and 1907. (1 mark)
    1. Ngindo; 
    2. Matumbi;
    3. Pogoro;  
    4. Ngoni; 
    5. Mpunga; 
    6. Luguru;
    7. Zaramo;
    8. Bena;
    9. Ndendeule.
    10. Wamera
      1 x 1  = 1 mark
  13. Outline two roles played by the ex-war soldiers in the growth of African Nationalism after 1945. (2 marks)
    1. They applied military skills/tactics acquired to fight colonialism;
    2. They trained African Nationalists in military fighting skills;
    3. They joined/formed Nationalist movement;
    4. They organised/mobilised African Nationalists;
    5. They made/serviced the weapons used by the Nationalists.
      Any 2 x 1  = 2 marks
  14. Highlight one way in which economic rivalries between the European powers contributed to the outbreak of the First World War. (1 mark)
    1. Competition for overseas market caused tension/friction;
    2. Competition for sources of raw materials/colonies fuelled tension;
    3. Tariff wars among them created tension / suspicion.
    4. Competition for surplus capital. 1 x 1  = 1 mark
  15. Give the main incident which made Japan to surrender unconditionally to the allied powers in 1945. (1 mark)
    The dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. 1x1=1 mark
  16. State two factors which promote economic relations between nations. (2 marks)
    1. Loans given to other nations;
    2. Offering grants/aid to other nations;
    3. Trading activities between nations;
    4. Investments in foreign nations;
    5. Debt relief to other nations. Any 2 x 1  = 2 marks
  17. State two ways in which non-aligned members safeguard their national security. (2 marks)
    1. By keeping off from conflicts of non-member countries;
    2. By maintaining their sovereignty/independence;
    3. By maintaining their economic independence;
    4. By not identifying with either Communism or Capitalism;
    5. By taking independent decisions/actions in international fora;
    6. By maintaining their cultural identity.
    7. By not joining military alliances. Any 2 x 1  = 2 marks

SECTION B (45 MARKS) - Answer three questions

    1. Give five reasons why hunting of wild animals was mainly a group activity during the Stone Age period. (5 marks)
      1. Wild animals are dangerous/could kill people;
      2. They could surround the animals;
      3. Spotting/locating the animal was easier;
      4. Less time was taken to catch the animals;
      5. To give moral encouragement/team spirit;
      6. They could catch more animals. Any 5 x 1  = 5 marks
    2. Describe five ways in which the development of the upright posture improved the early man’s way of life. (10 marks)
      1. The early man was able to move/walk/run faster with long strides;
      2. Man could use the hands to carry out farming activities;
      3. Man could use the hands to grasp items conveniently;
      4. Man could spot/sight the animals/wild fruits which he used to hunt/gather from far distances;
      5. Man could see the impending danger from a distance and take appropriate measures;
      6. Man used hands to make tools/ weapons which were used for different purposes.
      7. Man used the hands to defend himself/attack the enemies.
      8. Man used the hands to perform/carry out domestic chores/young ones.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks
    1. What were the uses of coal during the Industrial Revolution in Europe. (5 marks)
      1. To drive steam engines;
      2. To provide lighting;
      3. To heat water;
      4. To drive locomotives;
      5. To manufacture dyes/pharmaceutical products/raw materials in industries;
      6. To produce coke. Any 5 x 1  = 5 marks
    2. Explain five effects of scientific inventions on medicine. (10 marks)
      Positive effects
      1. Through medical researches/experiments terminal diseases which used to kill/disfigure people have been reduced/eradicated;
      2. Advancement in medical science has helped to reduce suffering/ to relieve people from pain;
      3. It has made surgical operations safer thereby reducing the number of people who die during and after operations;
      4. The invention of vaccines has helped to prevent/control the spread of diseases leading to increased life expectancy;
      5. The technology of developing test tube babies has helped childless couples to have children;
      6. The inventions have made it possible for transplants of body parts such as heart, liver and kidneys, thereby sustaining human life;
      7. Advanced/sophisticated medical equipment which perform computer assisted surgery have been developed.
      8. It has led to job creation for medics/other workers who perform various duties in health institutions;
      9. It has led to the discovery /manufacture of drugs for treating/curing different diseases.
        Negative effects
      10. It has led to loss of lives through abortion.
      11. It has weakened the immune system due to overdependence of drugs/drug abuse.
      12. Drugs are sometimes expensive and beyond reach of many people.
      13. Careless disposal of used medical products cause harm to human beings.
      14. Use of contraceptives has led to sexual immorality in the society.
        Any 5 x 2  = 10  marks
    1. Outline five European activities in Africa during the 19th century. (5 marks)
      1. Were involved in trade;
      2. Were spreading Christianity;
      3. Were involved in exploration;
      4. Were establishing settlements;
      5. Were signing imperial treaties/establishing colonial rule;
      6. Were mining;
      7. Were involved in farming.
      8. Were involved in stamping out slave trade.
      9. Were involved in spreading Western education.
      10. Were involved in establishing health facilities.Any 5 x 1  = 5 marks
    2. Explain five effects of the Mandinka resistance against the French invasion in the late 19th century. (10 marks)
      1. Many lives were lost due to the protracted war between the two groups;
      2. There was destruction of property as the Mandinka applied scorched earth policy during the war;
      3. The Mandinka were defeated and hence subjected to French colonial rule/ loss of indepence;
      4. The traditional institutions of the Mandinka were disrupted/weakened rendering them ineffective in discharging their duties/functions/loss of leadership;
      5. The Mandinka experienced famine as most of the people were engaged in the war at the expense of farming activities;
      6. Many people were displaced by the war, thereby becoming refugees in the neighbouring states;
      7. The war created suffering /misery among the people leading to a state of despair;
      8. Samore Toure was captured and deported to Gabon;
      9. Disruption of economic activities eg. gold mining and trade;
      10. It laid down ground for African nationalism.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks
    1. Identify five contributions made by Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana in promoting Pan- Africanism. (5 marks)
      1. He attended Pan-African Conference in Manchester in 1945.
      2. He organized/hosted Pan-African Conference in Accra in 1958.
      3. He inspired African leaders to unite;
      4. He encouraged the formation of nationalist movements;
      5. He co-ordinated plans to decolonize West African states/African states.
      6. He supported black civil rights movement in the U.S.A;
      7. He condemned European domination in Africa.
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
    2. Describe five factors undermining the activities of the African Union (AU) since its formation in 2001. (10 marks)
      1. Political instability/civil wars in many countries makes it difficult to execute some of its programmes;
      2. Border disputes between member countries creates disunity in the continent;
      3. Lack of democracy in some countries has contributed to its inability to end human rights abuses/violations;
      4. Interference of African affairs by the developed countries undermines the union’s effort to implement its policies;
      5. Due to neo-colonialism, the members are more attached to their former colonial masters at the expense of the union;
      6. Ideological differences between some African states creates divisions within the union thus making it difficult to reach at an agreement;
      7. Lack of a standing army renders it ineffective in implementing decisions which call for military intervention;
      8. National interests are given priority at the expense of the union’s interests;
      9. Inadequate funds makes it difficult for the union to fulfil all its obligations;
      10. Divided loyalty;
      11. Personality differences among African leaders.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks

SECTION C (30 MARKS) - Any two questions

    1. State three similarities between the French and the British structure of administration in Africa.(3 marks)
      1. Both had a governor as the chief executive of the colony;
      2. They had provinces as administrative units;
      3. Both had districts as administrative units;
      4. Both had locations as administrative units;
      5. They had sub-locations.
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Explain six problems experienced by the French administration in Senegal. (12 marks)
      1. Communication/language barrier made it difficult for the administrators to be effective;
      2. Poor transport network hampered their mobility thereby making it difficult to reach certain areas.
      3. Resistance by African traditional leaders created obstacles - fear for loss of their positions.
      4. The policy of assimilation required patience/was time consuming since some Africans were reluctant to forsake their way of life;
      5. They faced hostility from Muslims who were opposed to French values which embraced Christianity;
      6. The appointed chiefs were undermined by their fellow Africans as they were viewed as colonial agents;
      7. They lacked adequate funds to sustain their operations.
      8. Resistance by the French traders/businessmen - fear for competition from African traders;
      9. Resistance by the French parliamentarians - fear for competition of being outnumbered in the Chamber of Deputies.
        Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
    1. State three ways in which the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) promoted the education of Africans after independence. 3 marks
      1. Education facilities were expanded/construction of schools;
      2. More Africans were encouraged to join school;
      3. The curriculum was revised to conform to the needs of the people/ provided quality education;
      4. The government established universities/tertiary institutions.
        Any 3 x 1 = (3 marks)
    2. Explain the political challenges faced by the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) during the reign of Mobutu Sese Seko. (12 marks)
      1. The banning of opposition political parties created a one party state which stifled democracy in the country;
      2. The dictatorial regime was introduced by replacing federal system with the central government under his control;
      3. Appointments based on loyalty/kinship in administration created disunity in the country;
      4. The stripping off parliament of its powers through constitutional amendments led to the establishment of a totalitarian regime;
      5. The opposition to the government created uncertainty/tension in the country leading to the arrests/harassment of opposition leaders;
      6. The riots/demonstrations due to the civilians’ dissatisfaction with the regime caused political tension/stability in the country;
      7. Civil wars divided the country along tribal line hence compromising national unity;
      8. Rebellion against the regime backed by external forces led to the overthrowing of the government.
        Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
    1. Identify three circumstances that may make a vice-president assume presidency in India. (3 marks)
      1. When the sitting president dies;
      2. If the president becomes incapacitated;
      3. When the president resigns;
      4. When the president is removed/impeached.
    2. Explain six functions of  the president of India. (12 marks)
      1. He/she dissolves/calls elections of the lower house of parliament/Lok Sabha/House of the people;
      2. The president assents/vetoes bills that have been p assed by parliament;
      3. The president is the commander inchief of the armed forces
      4. The president appoints state governors/attorney general / supreme court judges;
      5. The president declares a state of emergency when national security is threatened;
      6. The president appoints the prime minister on advice of parliament/He calls the leader of the winning party to form government;
      7. He/she is a symbol of national unity.
      8. He establish special councils to arbitrate on inter state disputes.
      9. He nominates 12 members to the Council of state/Upper House/Rajja Sabha.
      10. He is the leader of political party that nominates him for elections.
      11. He pardons offenders.
      12. He makes regulations for certain union territories.
        Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
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