KCSE 2015 English Paper 2 with Marking Scheme

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  1. Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.
    Most people believe that when someone is lying they smile more than usual, but research shows the opposite is true-they smile less. The difficulty with lying is that the subconscious mind acts automatically and independently of our verbal lie, so our body language gives us away. This is why people who rarely tell lies are usually caught, regardless of how convincing they may sound. The moment they begin to lie, their body send out contradictory signals, and these give us a feeling that they are not telling the truth. During the lie, the subconscious mind sends out nervous energy which appears as a gesture that can contradict what was said.
    Professional liars have refined their body gestures to the point where it is difficult to “see” the lie, and the people fall for it, hook, line, and sinker. They do it in one of the two ways. First, they practice what “feel” like the right gestures when they tell the lie, but this only works when they have practiced telling a lot of lies over long periods of time. Second, they can reduce their gesturing so that they don’t use any positive or negative gestures when lying, but that’s also hard to do.
    Try this simple test – tell a deliberate lie to someone face – to- face and make a conscious effort to suppress all body gestures. Even when your major body gestures are consciously suppressed, numerous small micro – gestures will still be transmitted. These include facial muscular twitching, dilation and contraction of pupils, sweating, flushed cheeks, eye – blinking rate increasing from 10 blinks per minute to as many as 50 blinks per minute, and many other micro-signals that indicate deceit. Research using slow-motion cameras show that these small micro-gestures can occur within a split second and it’s only people such as professional interviewers, salespeople, and the very perceptive who can read them.
    It is obvious that to be able to lie successfully you need to have your body hidden or out of sight. Police interrogation often involves placing the person on a chair in the open or placing him under lights and his body in full view of the interrogators; his lies are much easier to see under these circumstances. Lying is easier if you are sitting behind a desk where your body is partially hidden, or if you’re peering over a fence, or from behind a closed door. The best way to lie is over a telephone or an email. (Adapted from Body Language by Allan and Barbara Pease. London: Orion, 2004)
    1. According to the passage, what is the connection between lying and smiling? (2 marks)
    2. According to the passage, how do professional liars manage to hide their deception? (4 marks)
    3. The passage suggests a simple test which involves a deliberate lie and consciously suppressing all body gestures. What are the results? (2 marks)
    4. Explain how police interrogators use their knowledge of how body language relates to spoken language. (2 marks)
    5. Make notes on the relationship between lying and our body language as revealed in the passage. (5 marks)
    6. How can we tell that the authors of this passage do not approve lying? (2 marks)
    7. “The subconscious mind sends out nervous energy.” Rewrite beginning: Nervous… (1 mark)
    8. Explain the meaning of each of the following as used in the passage:
      1. fall for it, hook, line, and sinker; (1 mark)
      2. Perceptive. (1 mark)
  2. Read the excerpt below and answer the questions that follow. (25 marks)
    There is a knocking at the door. The women don’t answer. Enter IRONSHIRTS. The PEASANT WOMAN bows low.
    CORPORAL: Well, here she is. What did I tell you? What a nose I have! I smelt her. Lady, I have a question for you. Why did you run away? What did you think I would to you? I’ll bet it was something unchaste. Confess!
    GRUSHA: (While the PEASANT WOMAN bows again and again): I’d left some milk on the stove, and I suddenly remembered it.
    CORPORAL: Or maybe you imagined I looked at you unchastely? Like there could be something between us? A carnal glance, know what I mean?
    GRUSHA: I didn’t see it.
    CORPORAL: But it’s possible, huh? You admit that much. After all, I might be a pig. I’ll be frank with you: I could think of all sorts of things if we were alone.( To the PEASANT WOMAN) shouldn’t you be busy in the yard? Feeding the hens?
    PEASANT WOMAN: (falling suddenly to her knees) Soldier, I did not know a thing about it. Please don’t burn the roof over our heads.
    CORPORAL: What are you talking about?
    PEASANT WOMAN: I had nothing to do with it. She left it in the doorstep I swear it.
    CORPORAL: (Suddenly seeing the CHILD and whistling): Ah, so there’s a little something in the crib! Blockhead, I smell a thousand piasters. Take the old girl outside and hold on to her. It looks like I have a little cross-examining to do.(The PEASANT WOMAN lets herself to be led out by the PRIVATE, without a word) So you’ve got the child I wanted from you! (He walks towards the crib)
    GRUSHA: Officer, he is mine. Not the one you are after
    CORPORAL: I’ll just take a look.(He bends over the crib)
    GRUSHA: Looks round in despair.
    GRUSHA: He’s mine! He’s mine!
    CORPORAL: Fine linen!
    1. Briefly describe what happens before the events in this excerpt. (3 marks)
    2. Explain what the playwright achieves by using dirty humour in this excerpt? (4 marks)
    3. Identify and describe the dramatic irony in this excerpt. (2 marks)
    4. What does this excerpt reveal about the character of the peasant woman? (4 marks)
    5. This excerpt shows that Grusha makes two mistakes which she later corrects. What are the mistakes and how did she correct them later? (4 marks)
    6. Imagine you are the director and selecting cast for this scene, what physical features would you look in the Corporal and Grusha? (4 marks)
    7. Rewrite the following in indirect speech: 
      “I didn’t see it,” said Grusha. (1 mark)
    8. Describe what happens immediately after the events presented in this excerpt. (3 marks)
  3. Read the oral narrative below and then answer the questions below:
    The Fox and the Crow.
    A fox once saw a crow fly off with a piece of cheese in its beak and settle on a branch of a tree. “That’s for me, as I am a fox,” said Mr. Fox, and he walked up to the foot of the tree.
    “Good day, Ms. Crow,” he cried. “How well you are looking today: how glossy your feathers; how bright your eye. I feel sure your voice must surpass that of other birds, just as your figure does. let me hear one song from you that I may greet you as the Queen of Birds.”
    The crow lifted up her head and began to caw her best, but the moment she opened her mouth the piece of cheese fell to the ground, only to be snapped up by Mr. Fox. “That will do,” said he. “That was all I wanted. in exchange for your cheese I will give you a piece of advice for the future- “Do not trust flatterers!”(Adapted from Prentice Hall Literature,Ed. Roger Babusci et al.Englewood Cliffs,New Jersey 1991)
    1. How would you classify this narrative? Explain your answer. (3 marks)
    2. Identify and illustrate two character traits of the Crow. (4 marks)
    3. What does the fox mean by “That’s for me, as I am the fox”? (2 marks)
    4. Identify and illustrate any three stylistic features in the story. (6 marks)
    5. Explain what this story about human relationships. (4 marks)
    6. Explain the meaning of the word ‘caw’ as used in the story. (1 mark)
    1. Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given after each. Do not change the meaning. (4 marks)
      1. It was not necessary for you to leave that early.
        (Begin: You need…)
      2. Is it difficult to understand what the speaker is saying? (Replace the underlined word with the appropriate phrasal verb.)
      3. She won the admiration of the judges and was awarded the coveted trophy.
        (Begin: Not only…)
      4. I will give you the money if you tell me the truth.
        (Begin: Only if…)
    2. Choose the correct pronoun for each gap from among the following: him, I, me, his, she, and hers. (3 marks)
      1. The principal summoned all the students except you and …………..
      2. Although Joseph and I disagreed over the matter, I am still a friend of ………….
      3. …………..and I were the only ones who completed the race.
    3. Fill in each blank space with the correct alternative from the given choices. (3 marks)
      1. The bodyguard stands……….the president in public meetings. (besides/beside)
      2. The childless couple……………a child. (adapted/adopted)
      3. Many workers did not realize that the strike would lead to………problems. (this/these)
    4. Fill in the blank spaces with the correct form of words in brackets. (3 marks)
      1. A nurse ought to be ……….. (respond) to the needs of the patient.
      2. The substances will …………. (solid) if exposed to air for a few minutes.
      3. Such negative ……….. (utter) may put you in serious trouble.
    5. Rewrite the following sentences putting the words in bracket in the most appropriate position. (2 marks)
      1. The tourists have been stopping here every month. (briefly)
      2. I have wondered where the treasure is hidden. (often)


    1. That people who lie smile less because our body language gives us away. (2 marks)
      • They practise what feels like the right gesture when they lie.
      • That they have refined their body gestures to the point where it is difficult to catch them.
      • They have practised by telling lots of lies over a long time.
      • They have reduced the gestures/cut down on their non-verbal features of communication.
        Any 2 points (4 marks)
    3. You can suppress the major body gestures successfully but the micro-gestures will still be transmitted/facial muscular twitching, sweating, flushed cheeks - will give you away. Any two examples, a mark each. (2 marks)
      • The suspect is made to sit on a chair in the open /placed under lights.
      • So that the interrogators can fully observe the body language /him/her.
        Expect the two points1 mark each (2marks)
      1. When lying we smile less/ your subconscious mind makes it harder for you to fake a smile
      2. When one is lying the body sends out contradictory messages ..../Our body language is independent ..../There is a disconnect between non-verbal ..../when one is lying, one sweats, facial muscles twitch, pupils dilate, eye blinking rate increases ....
      3. It is difficult to manipulate/control your body in order to conceal/hide your lies/ Even when your major body gestures are consciously suppressed, numerous small micro-gestures will still be transmitted.
        • Answer must be in note form
        • Notes are identified by use of numbers, letters, bullets, asterisks, incomplete sentences.
        • Deduct ½ of candidates score from the total if answer is in prose.
        • Affix N to the penalised mark.
    6. The authors show/demonstrate that one cannot get away with lying. They are simply taking an objective and scientific look at how our body language makes it harder for us to lie successfully. They demonstrate the discrepancies between nonverbal communication and verbal communication. However much you try to lie, your body gestures will betray you/ even when your major body gestures are consciously suppressed numerous small micro-gestures will be transmitted. They demonstrate that one cannot get away with lying/there is no reward for lying. Any 1 point (2 marks)
    7. Nervous energy is sent out by the subconscious mind. (1 mark)
      1. utterly/fully/totally/completely/tricked/hoodwinked/fooled/cheated/deceived.
      2. observant / discerning/keen/intuitive/understanding. (1 mark)
      • Grusha meets the Ironshirts.
      • The Ironshirts chase Grusha in their search for Michael, the Governor's child. Grusha has run back to the house of the peasant woman where she had left the child.
      • Grusha instructs the peasant woman to hide the child/ conceal his identity /remove fine linen/ say child is hers). (3 marks)
      • Brings out the character of the corporal as bawdy/immoral/dirty/unchaste.
      • Develops theme of immorality.
      • Provide comic relief.
      • The humour temporarily makes us forget the tragedy that is about to happen.
      • To defuse the dramatic tension caused by the impending tragedy - the Ironshirts are looking for the Governor's child and they could kill him.
      • The humour therefore provides comic relief.
      • The audience laughs uncomfortably as they wait for the worst.
        (Any 2 points for 2 marks each)
    3. The audience knows the child is in the house but the corporal does not./ The audience what the peasant woman is talking about but the corporal is not.
      (Any one point for 2 marks)
      • Cowardly/fearful/timid - the peasant woman is scared even before the corporal knows there is a child.
      • Selfish/self-serving/traitorous - she spills the beans - she could have concealed the information for the sake of the child.
      • Unmotherly - she does not help Grusha to hide the identity of the child.
        Any two illustrated traits, 2 marks each, identification 1 mark, illustration 1 mark
      • She leaves the child in fine linen, which betrays his class /origin.
      • She does not adopt the child so that she can legitimately claim him.
      • She later dresses the child in rags to conceal his lineage.
      • She later adopts the child.
      • She leaves the child at the doorstep of the peasant woman. Later she hits the ironshirt and she takes the child with her.
      • The corporal should be tall, strong/muscular, well-shaven and mean looking/stern. (2 marks)
      • Grusha should be good-looking and energetic with a kind and motherly face. (2 marks)
    7. Grusha said (that) she hadn't seen it. (1 mark)
    8. Grusha tries unsuccessfully to push the corporal from the crib where the child is sleeping. She then hits the corporal on the head with a log and the corporal collapses. Grusha then runs away with the child. Expect all the three points, 1 mark each (3 marks)
    1. Trickster narrative, the fox is the trickster who tricks the Crow, taking advantage of the foolish Crow; the Crow is the dupe whose vanity and foolishness prevent her from seeing the duplicity of the fox. / The fox tricks the Crow to drop the cheese. 2 marks for identification, 1 mark for illustration, no mark if no identification. (3 marks)
    2. Crow: vain, foolish, egotistical.
      gullible/naive/foolish - flattery opens her mouth. Vain/showy/conceited/egotistical - full of herself - lifted her head and begins to caw her best. Any two well illustrated traits = 2x2 (4 marks)
    3. The Fox means the cheese is for him because he is smarter than the Crow/cunning/sly. (2 marks)
      • Monologue - the Fox speaks to himself
      • Dialogue/direct speech - the Fox conducts a one-sided dialogue with the Crow.
      • Onomatopoeia- Crow, caw, snapped Dramatic irony- Mr. Fox's first speech is meant for the audience/listener, not the Crow - so the Crow doesn't know what we know.
      • Satire - the narrator makes fun of the Crow.
      • Opening formula - Once ......
      • Personification - animals speaking.
      • Hyperbole - fox flatters crow (words used by crow)
      • Narration - The crow lifted up her head ..... Expect 1 mark for identification, 1 mark for illustration.
        3 x 2 (6 marks)
      • Men flatter women and get what they would otherwise have not got/human beings are deceitful.
      • Women who are very beautiful would be particularly susceptible to flattery.
      • In general, however, people who are beautiful/handsome and vain can be victims of flattery/human beings are gullible/naive.
      • Those who flatter are selfish, and their flattery is self-serving. Expect two points.
        2 x 2 = 4 marks
    6. Means the Crow could not sing at all/the Crow attempted to sing ( in vain) (1 mark)
      1. You need not have left that early. You needn't have left that early.
      2. Is it that difficult to make out /figure out/ what the speaker is saying?
      3. Not only did she win the admiration of the judges but she was also awarded the coveted trophy.
      4. Only if you tell me the truth will I give you the money.
      1. me/him
      2. his
      3. she
      1. beside
      2. adopted
      3. these
      1. responsive
      2. solidify
      3. utterances/utterings
      1. The tourists have been stopping here briefly every month.
      2. I have often wondered where the treasure is hidden.
        All grammar items are 1 mark each.
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