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  • Islam provides a comprehensive code of conduct and a perfect way of life.
  • Apart from moral and spiritual aspects, Islam also addresses and guides Muslims on his economic life.
  • Trade and commerce plays a very important role in acquisition of wealth.
  • This has been so since the time of Jahiliya (pre-Islamic Arabia) when Arabia was a center of economic activities.
  • Trade and commercial undertakings should be conducted according to the regulations laid down in Islam.
  • This rules aims at ensuring that the citizens conduct themselves well during any business dealings.

Wealth and Property

a) Islamic teachings on the acquisition of wealth

  • Although Islam has not prevented one from living happily in this world but it is important to note that Islam has laid down measures to guide a Muslim in the acquisition of wealth.
  • Islam is very keen as has placed restrictions on the ways and means through which a Muslim may obtain his wealth.
  • The principles of supply and demand as practiced in the world also apply in the Islamic finance but with strict adherence to the Sharia.
  • We must realize that Allah (SWT) has not discouraged Muslims from enjoying the bounties He Has bestowed on them on earth but should not go beyond the limits set by Allah (SWT).
  • Islamic economic system has put in place certain restrictions in the acquisition of wealth, properties and owning of goods.
  • The following are some of the Islamic teachings on the acquisition of wealth and property:
    • You should acquire your wealth through legal means.
    • Use the wealth you acquire to please Allah (SWT) through giving of zakat, sadaqa, assisting the needy among other usefull ways. Do not use the wealth extravagantly.
    • All transactions involving trade should transparent.
    • You should not exploit or take advantage of the customer or other business parties for his own gains.
    • You should honour agreements and contracts in a business transaction.
    • Have trust in Allah (SWT) as the provider and sustainer such trust should lead one to working hard and keeping his performance at its best while fearing Allah (SWT) in the acquisition of wealth.
    • While transacting business there should be mutual consent between the parties.
    • Mutual respect and consideration for others is a virtue that should be observed during acquisition of wealth.
    • Agreements between parties, involving future obligations should be recorded.
    • Practice justice, honesty and fairness between each other regardless of race, faith, creed, ethnic background or any other differences.
    • Be considerate and take into account the interest of the others in the acquisition of wealth. Do not engage in activities that may bring harm to the community or the environment.

b) Sources of earnings

  • Islam encourages every member of the society to be productive and strive to earn a living.
  • There are two forms of earning, either legitimate (legal) or illegitimate (illegal).
  • A Muslim is encouraged to obtain wealth through legal means.
  • The following are some of the legitimate sources of earning:

i) Legitimate sources of earning

Trade activities on lawful commodities

  • Islam has permitted all legal trade.
  • However, a Muslim should follow the Islamic teachings while carrying out his business.
  • We shall look at the lawful and unlawful act in trade later in this chapter.
  • You should make reasonable profit during trading activities.

Agricultural activities

  • Agriculture consists of arable activities which are mainly concerned with growing of crops or keeping livestockfor subsistence and commercial purposes.

Employment activities

  • A Muslim can earn his or her income through legal employment.
  • It is the provision of human expertise and services in exchange for money.
  • This may include; service industry like teaching, hotelier or working in production industries or institutions among others.
  • Through this employment, when may earn salaries, wages or commissions.


  • e.g. house rent on commercial house, business premises, rates on land and income from rented equipment e.g hiring of tends, farm plantations among others.

ii) Illegitimate earnings

  • Such earnings are haram and a Muslim is prohibited from consuming.
  • The sources of such earnings are as:
    • Hoarding of goods.
    • Smuggling goods or transacting businessin black market.
    •  Dealing in harmful and expired products.
    • Money or capital obtained through gambling or games of chances. Islam teaches one to earn through his own sweat yet the process of gambling involves earning without striving. Easy money or money without work is prohibited in Islam.
    • Engaging in products that are haram like narcotics, intoxicants, pork and other prohibited products.
    • Selling items that are legal while one is certain that they will be used for illegally e.g drugs (knowing that they are going to be abused), weapons and fruits (knowing that they will be used to make intoxicants).
    • Mediation and brokerage of goods that are haram e.g wholesalers and commission agents in businesses that are haram.
    • Rent and rates from properties leased to haram businesses e.g brothels, bars, casinos, night clubs among others.
    • Utilities that offer services that are haram e.g. lodges from where adultery, fornication and other prohibited activities are carried out.
    • Child trafficking, slavery, conman ship and any other way that is suppressive to human dignity.
    • Acquiring property through fraud or devious means.
    • Exploiting the weak by taking advantage of their weakness to enrich oneself e.g. exploiting widows, orphans, divorcees, physically or mentally impaired persons among others.
    • Sale of animals that are haram according to the Qur’an and hadith. However when a halal animal dies before it is slaughtered a Muslim is allowed to use its parts such as; skins, horns and bones e.g for industrial purposes.
    • Illegal farming like the cultivation of bhang.
    • Trade on stolen, looted and vandalized propertiesor items.
    • Any kind of business transaction involving uncertainty. The Sharia forbids transactions involving unspecified quantities and acceptance of money where there is uncertainty e.g acceptance of money for fish in the river or a bird in the air. However if the level of uncertainty is minimal, the transaction is allowed. It should also be noted that Islam allows payment on goods to be delivered at a later date when the measurements are known.
    • Acquiring money through usury (interest).

Trade and Commerce

a) Honesty in Trade

  • Islam calls for traders to be sincere and honest when conducting trade because it is one of the greatest virtues.
  • In Surat ul Israi Allah says:
    Give full measure when ye Measure, and weigh way with a balance that is straight: That it is the most fitting and the most advantageous in the final determination.” [Q 17:35]
  • In Surat ul Mutaffifin, Allah (SWT) also says:
    Woe to those that deal in fraud. Those who, when they have to receive by measure from men, exact full measure, But when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due. Do you not think that they will be called to account?”[Q 83:1-4]
  • From the above verses we learn that:-
    • Fraudulent trade is prohibited in Islam.
    • Allah doesn’t allow misappropriation of wealth and misuse of other people’s resources by false means.
    • The right measure should be taken because excess measure in purchasing and less measure in selling is equivalent to stealing the extra amount.
    •  Business is a commitment before Allah (SWT) and the trader must have the consideration that he is seen by Allah (SWT), so any virtue is a good deed performed before Allah while any misdeed is an evil committed before Allah.
    • People will be brought back to life on the day of Judgement and will be asked to account for everything they did, including their trading activities.
    • Those who conduct their businesses honestly will get goodwill and legitimate earnings in this world and be rewarded by Allah (SWT) for their honesty in the hereafter. Conversely, those with bad business practises will pile up illegitimate earnings in this world and be punished for their evils in the hereafter.

Importance of honesty in trade

  • It enables a Muslim business man to make lawful profit.
  • Through honesty a business man will maintain a good relationship with his customers.
  • It enhances truthfulness in all trading activities and one will not engage in vices like price hiking.
  • Allah blesses the business that is done with honesty.

b) Record Keeping

Read [Q 2:282-283]

  • For a Muslim to run a successful business he needs to keep accurate financial information.
  • There are several documents that a business person is reuired to maintain.
  • Eg receipts, delivery notes, invoices, inventories, bank slips.
  • The keeping of business records is essential in an Islamic business environment.
  • Allah (SWT) has ordained the keeping of records Surat ul Baqara:
    O you who believe! When you deal with each other, in transactions involving future obligations in a fixed period of time, reduce them to writing. Let a scribe write down faithfully as the between the parties: let not the scribe refuse to write: as Allah Has taught him. So let them write…”[Q 2:282]
  • From the above verse, we learn that record keeping is essential in all business matters.
  • The following teachings should guide a Muslim during the writing and keeping of records:
    • The scribe who can be the accountant, bursar or any person authorized by the trader to write should keep records with fairness and without favouritism.
    • The scribe should be objective in recording because that knowledge is a treasure from Allah.
    • The scribe should write exactly what the owner is dictating.
    • Where the owner cannot dictate (due to such disabilities as impairment or sickness), the guardians of his interest e.g. his or her next of kin, business partner(s) and professional employees should dictate in truth and fairness.
    • There must be two male witnesses or one male and two female witnesses who will witness the dictation as well as reminders in case of forgetfulness.
    • Anything, whether big or small in the terms of the dealings should not be left out.
    • For cash transactions, the records may either be kept or not, depending on the necessity.
    • To harm, terrify or kill the witnesses in order to corrupt the evidence written is a sin.
    • It is important for both parties to observe trust in honouring their pledges.
  • As we have mentioned earlier, it is important for a Muslim trader to always keep records in his or her business transactions. This is significant because of the following reasons:
    • It allows time for the trader to monitor the success or failure of the business.
    • Good records help one to easily retrieve information about the business and also to know its progress.
    • It is an easy way of identifying threats, opportunities or weaknesses in the business.
    • It assists one to have information on the financial consequences of his or her decisions.
    • Well kept and up to date records help one to clear doubts in the business.
    • They help when transferring business or property to the heirs or next of kin.
    • The records help you in maintaining a good relationship with your customers.

c) Lawful and unlawful acts in trade

  • Even though trade has been allowed in Islam, there are some acts that are lawful and others that are unlawful according to the Islamic law.
  • As we had discussed earlier in this chapter, whatever a Muslim does should be in line with the teachings of the Qur’an and the Prophet’s tradition.
  • Likewise, issues to do with business transactions and trade must avoid all that have been prohibited and encourage that which has been ordained.
  • In our study, we shall look at the following lawful and unlawful acts during business dealings:

i) Money lending

  • Islam has allowed money be lent to those who are in need on the grounds that it will be paid back to the owners.
  • According to the Qur’an, there should be a written record of the money lent in the presence of reliable witnesses.
  • The amount lent out should exactly be the amount to be paid back.
  • Anything more paid shall constitute riba, which is highly forbidden in Islam.
  • At the time of taking a loan, the borrower should be truly concerned to repay it within the stipulated time.
  • If the borrower cannot repay the loan in lump sum, he should make it clear beforehand and promise how he wishes to repay it.
  • We must realize that Allah (SWT) will cause humiliation (in this world) and shall punish (in the hereafter) those who take a loan with a bad intention.
  • Abu Hurairah (RA) related that the Prophet (PBUH) said, ‘The person who takes wealth from people with the intention of repaying it, Allah will assist him in the repayment of that loan.
    The person who takes wealth from people with the intention of squandering it, Allah will cause him destruction.’ (Sahih Bukhari, Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal)

ii) Riba (usury or interest)

  • The word ‘interest’ is reffered in the Holy Qur’an as Riba or Al-riba (usury) which means ‘excess’.
  • In the Islamic Sharia, riba is any excess amount which is levied or charged beyond the amount that is borrowed at the time of its re-payment.
  • In the present world, there are many financial challenges that may drive a Muslim into taking loans charged with interest.
  • However there are ways in which a Muslim may avoid such institutions that are unislamic.
  • Muslims should set up Islamic financial institutions e.g Islamic banks which are interest free, interest free micro-lending that will avail small sums of money at zero rated interests.
  • Allah (SWT) has forbidden interest in the Holy Qur’an.
  • He says,
    Those who devour usury will not stand except as stands one whom the Evil One by his touch has driven to madness. That is because they say: ‘Trade is just like usuryBut Allah has permitted trade and forbidden usury. Those who after receiving direction from their Lord, desist, shall be pardoned for the past; their case is for Allah (to judge); But those who repeat (the offence) are companions of the Fire; they will abide therein (forever). Allah will deprive usury of all blessing, but will give increase for deeds of charity; for He loves notcreatures ungrateful and wicked. Those who believe, and do deeds of righteousness, and regular prayers and regular charity, will have their reward with their Lord: On them shall be no fear; Nor shall they grieve. O you who believe! Fear Allah and give up what remains of your demand for usury, if you are indeed believers. If you do it not, take notice of war from Allah and His Messenger: But if you turn back, you shall have your capital sums; Deal not unjustly, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly.”[Q2:275-279]
  • We can learn from the above verses that:
    • Believers should refrain from all kinds of riba (usury/interest)
    • However much one will see trade and intrest ressembling, Allah has forbidden usury and permitted trade.
    • Whoever repents and refrains from the practice of riba and keeps the past profits and Allah knows best.
    • Those who practice usury will abide in hell forever for their impiety and guilt.
    • Any excess given for the sake of charity or alms is allowed and is not counted as usury.
    • Whatever remains from usury should be given out but not consumed.
    • Those who repent for taking riba should have their principal and forego the interest.
    • Everybody should practise fairness so that nobody is wronged or wrongs another.

Effects of Riba (interest)

  • The person who charges interest and the one who pays it are equally guilty according to the Islamic Sharia.
  • Apart from the two parties, even the persons writing the documents and bearing witness to the transaction are condemned although they may not have an active role in the deal.
  • The curse and wrath of Allah (SWT) is cast upon any person who gets involved in the transactions involving riba.
  • Riba earns a person a severe penalty before Allah (SWT) because it is based of suppression, selfishness and exploitation.
  • Devouring interest has adverse effects to a Muslim both in this world and in the hereafter.
  • Some of the effects of Riba are as follows:
    • llah (SWT) does not accept charity of wealth earned through riba, and the giver does not receive any blessings in it.
    • It encourages selfishness, lust and greed for wealth.
    • Allah (SWT) does not grant the dua (supplication) nor give blessingto those who engage in riba.
    • It breaks the interpersonal relationship and cohesion among members of the society.
    • In a society where interest is the order of the day, the gap between the rich and the needy is widened.
    • One who fails to pay can be psychologically affected leading to strain and even committing suicide.
    • Whoever takes riba is a companion of shaitaan and shall be cast into the hell fire.
    • The heart of the one who engages in riba becomes corrupt, and as result it turns away from the remembrance of Allah (SWT).
    • It encourages corruption, injustice and violation of human rights.
    • It leads to debt bondage or debt slavery whereby the needy are always owed by the rich and hence whatever they earn, no matter how small it is, is already consumed as part of the payments. This may be inherited by the heirs.
    • Any consumers of ribaa will be punished in the grave, and on the day of judgement will rise from their graves while suffocating and in the state insanity.



iii) Hoarding

  • Islam encourages freedom for individual and natural competition in trade and condemns all practices driven by greed, ambition and selfishness.
  • It also condemns the habit of a trader who accumulates wealth at the expense of other traders and enriches himself by manipulating the prices of goods and other necessities.
  • Hoarding is the hiding of essential commodities so as to cause an artificial shortage so that to sell at higher prices in times of scarcity.
  • Such scarcity causes difficulty in the community and unnecessary suffering.
  • The Prophet referred to those who hoard goods as sinners and cursed people.
  • The Prophet (PBUH) said, “If anyone withholds goods until the price rises, he is a sinner.” (Muslim)
  • The Qur’an also condemns the practice of hoarding. Allah (SWT) says,
    “….those who hoard gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah, give unto them tidings of painful doom, on the day when it will be heated in the fire of hell, and their foreheads and their flanks (the upper part that supports the stomach) and their backs will be branded therewith (and unto them will be said): Here is what you hoarded for yourselves. Now test of what you used to hoard.”[Q 9:34-5]
  • Therefore hoarding is an evil that will earn a grevious punishment for those who practice it.

Effects of hoarding

  • It leads to unnecessary suffering among people in the society due to lack of basic commodities.
  • People end up buying goods at very high prices.
  •  It brings about uncalled for shortages of goods.
  • The hoarded goods may expire thus affecting the health of the consumers.
  • It derails a person from the path of Allah (SWT) and is promised a painful retribution by Allah (SWT).
  • Allah (SWT) says,
    O you who believe! There are indeed many among the priests and anchorites, who in falsehood devour the substance of men and hinder (them) from the way of Allah. And there are those who burry gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah: announce unto thema most grevious penalty.” [Q 9: 34]
  • It creates disunity and enemity among members of the society due to the suffering caused by those who practice hoarding.
  • Allah (SWT) has cursed the person who engages in hoarding. In a Hadith narrated by Umar (RA) from the Messenger of Allah who said: “Bringer of food-grains (to a city) is given provision, and the monopoliser is cursed.” (Ibn Ma’ja)
  • It is a form of exploitation and whoever engages in it earns sins from Allah (SWT).
  • It will encourage other vices such as stealing, vandalism, intolerance among others.
  • It ruins relationships among members of the community
  • It encourages selfishness yet Allah (SWT) teaches Muslims to share the wealth we have with the needy and the disadvantages than to hide it away where it benefits no one.

iv) Buying and Selling

  • It is important to note that in any business transaction, there must be a seller and a buyer.
  • Islam teaches that economic organization is in the hands of Allah (SWT) and he is the one who connects the needs of some people with those of others.
  • The buyer and the seller are therefore in need of each other and as such there is no way one can do without the other.
  • Allah (SWT) says in the Holy Qur’an,
    It is they who would portion the mercy of your Lord? It is We who portion out between them their livelihood in the life of this world: And we raise some of them above others in ranks, so that some may command work from others. But the mercy of your Lord is better than the (wealth) which they amass.” [Q 43:32]

Conditions of buying and selling in Islam:

  • In Islam, trade transactions become invalid if either the seller or the buyer is a slave, insane or a minor e.g. this is because these groups of persons are not legally accountable of the transactions.
  • There should be seriousness in the business matters between the seller and the buyer e.g there is no reality for a seller who jokingly says: ‘I will sell you my house for forty shillings.’
  • A seller and a buyer should willingly transact their business without either party being compelled.
  • The property exchanged should be owned by them or by the representative(s) of the original owner or both or one of them is a guardian of a minor.
  • It is obligatory that the quantity of the product should be known by measurements such as height, weight, volume or number.
  • The buyer should be able to pay for the items he is buying i.e it is unfare for the seller to negotiate for the sale of an item only to discover later that the buyer is not in a position to settle the payment.
  • The seller should be capable of taking the commodity into possession. According to this, it is not proper to sell an animal that has fled from its owner.

Rights of the buyer

  • The right to accept goods and inspect them before taking them into one’s possession is allowed in Islam. For example electronics should be tested before hand.
  • The buyer has a right to reject defected goods or those that do not meet the standards as agreed by the two parties.
  • He should be informed about any defects in the goods he or she is buying. According to this, the seller should willingly show and explain to the buyer any defects in the goods so that the buyer accepts with a clean heart.
  • The seller should not withhold any documents that may have been purchased with the items that would assist the buyer in the operation of the products e.g user manuals.
  • He has the right to choose the goods he wants i.e the seller should not restrict the buyer from selecting the item he or she desires to buy in a case where there is a choice.
  • The buyer should be issued with a receipt for the purchased goods. This is important to the buyer for record keeping and for security purposes.
  • The seller should not remove parts of the product which are supposed to be sold together with the product with the view of making profit by selling it separately.

v) Monopoly (or ihtikaar)

  • Ihtikaar is Arabic word which means monopoly.
  • It is the exclusive possession or control of the supply of services or trade commodities within an area.
  • For example;
    • Buying goods and products from traders before it reaches the market so as to sell it at your own price,
    • Selling goods to persons who are unfamiliar with the market i.e the seller takes adveantge of the buyer’s lack of knowledge of the market and the prices for his selfish ends.
  • We cannot restrictively and exhaustively define the term monopoly due to its various types.
  • Due to these different types, it is important for us to identify some the conditions under which monopoly is allowed in Islam.
  • These are as follows:
    • The price charged should not be too high to exploite buyers.
    • Other sellers should only be barred by other conditions of entry apart from favouritism and biasness.
    • The sellers should not intentionally hike the prices abruptly and drastically without notifying the buyers.
    • The system of distributing goods and services should be fair and not be discriminatory.
    • The monopoly should not be attained through, blackmail, cut or any other unfair means.

Agreements and Contracts

  • In any business a person does not give what he or she has in return for nothing.
  • Hence, it is very important for him or her to take precautions in any business transactions.
  • This is usually done through entering into an agreement or signing a contract with the parties involved.
  • An agreement is a mutual understanding between two parties for the sake of transactions, payment, exchange or transfer of property among others.
  • A contract is an agreement to undertake a programme, business, or investment for a given period of time that may involve acquisition of ownership and transfer of property or services.
  • As Muslims, we are encouraged to understand the subjects of contracts and agreements.
  • The contracting parties should make clear their intentions to take part in the transactions i.e the person offering (Ijab) and the one accepting the offer (Qubul).
  • Contracts and agreements must fulfill certain conditions as follows:

a) Conditions of agreements and contracts

  • The contract and agreements should be clear and in a language that is understandable to both parties and their witnesses.
  • They should not involve goods and services that are haram e.g. any agreement concerning intoxicants, zina, usury is void.
  • They should conform to the teachings of the Qur’an and hadith.
  • There should be free consent of the parties concerned i.e. they should not be forced into the contract.
  • The parties concerned should be aware of the terms in the contracts or agreement.
  • The parties involved should have attained maturity. i.e. Mukallaf
  • There must be witnessesi.e either two male or one male and two female.
  • It must contain a termination clause that states how the agreement or contract can be terminated.

b) Factors that invalidate agreements and contracts

  • Death of any of the parties involved.
  • Misunderstanding of the parties where there is fear that the pledge will not be honoured.
  • Insanity of either of the parties.
  • Where the contract or agreement is contrary to the teachings of Islam. i.e transactions that are dealing with the haram.
  • Where there will be negative impact on Islam e.g. suppression or war against Muslims.
  • Where one of the parties is not a mukhalaf (mature).
  • If the contract has not been written down.
  • Where force or trickery has been employed to influence the pledge.
  • Where some information was not disclosed such that one of the parties was not fully aware of the elements of the agreement or contract.
  • Where there were no reliable witnesses to the agreement or contract.


  • This is defined as spiritual or moral impurity or divergence from an ideal.
  • It can also be referred to as the wrongdoing on the part of an authority or powerful party through means that are unlawful, decadent, or contrary with ethical standards.
  • For example a person being dishonest or has fraudulent conduct.
  • In the Qur’an, Allah (SWT) has used the word fasad in reference to corruption. Allah (SWT) says,
    When it is said to them: “Make not mischief on the earth,” They say: “Why, we only want to make peace.” [Q 2:11]
  • This vice may include many activities such as bribery and misappropriation. Government, or ‘political’, corruption occurs when a person in power makes decisions that concern others in favour of his own interest.
  • Corruption can be due to real needs caused by income or greed and desire to live good life beyond one's means.
  • This evil that has cropped up in the society is definitely a sinful act and all benefits derived from it are unlawful.
  • We are aware that any income from unlawful means is forbidden in Islam.
  • The person involved in unlawful income will have no abode in the hereafter but will dwell in hell.

a) Causes of corruption

  • Segregation on social, political, economic lines. For example racial and religious differences where individuals favour only members of their group.
  • Greed for acquiring wealth where people compete to be economically better than others.
  • Nepotism and favouritism where people want to reserve every fortune to the members of their families and clans.
  • Lack of faith. Any Muslim who fears Allah (SWT) will shun corruption since it has been prohibited by Allah (SWT).
  • Weak, corrupt or absence of management systems.
  • Weak judicial system. In this situation, there is no enforcement of the law.
  • Misuse of power vested upon individuals or offices.
  • Lack of professional integrity, transparency and accountability among people.
  • Inefficient public sectors which results in a state of lawlessness.
  • Breakdown of social values and norms.

b) Effects of corruption

  • The curse of Allah (SWT) is upon the one who pays a bribe, the one who takes it and the mediator between the two.
  • Corruption leads to division of people on tribal and religious lines.
  • Corruption erodes democracy and impedes the rule of law and undermines the visions of governance. Public institutions and offices may loose their legitimacy due to corruption.
  • Widening of the gap between the rich and the poor.
  • Vicious cycle of poverty among those who live below poverty line.
  • Slow pace of development because some areas will be marginalized.
  • Political corruption breeds lack of productivity and creativity to put sound policies, which could lead to development.
  • Misallocation of resources to areas that are more favoured by those in authority.
  • Inhuman feelings that make the poor and the needy to be ignored.
  • Hatred between the rich and the poor because the poor see the rich as grabbers and a source of suffering resulting in social inequality.
  • Lacks of blessings from Allah as people become inhuman and heathen.
  • Social evils e.g. robbery, prostitution, drug abuse etc.
  • This vice has channelled the benefits of development to a few hands while majority are languishing in poverty.
  • This dishonest and illegal behaviour has resulted suspicion, jealousy and hatred among people.
  • Continuous exploitation of the poor by the rich due to increased cost of life.
  • When this happens, it can easily lead to gross inefficiencies both financially and productivity wise resulting in downfall of governments.

c) Remedies for corruption

  • Following the teachings of Allah (SWT) about acquisition of wealth as well as use of power and authority.
  • Muslims should act with God consciousness in any economic activities or responsibilities.
  • Legislations should be passed to regulate the use of power in offices.
  • There should be national unity rather than affiliation to parties, religions etc in appointments.
  • Rationality and fairness by the public service commission and directorate of personnel Management in offering employment positions.
  • Civic education should be done to sensitize the public on their roles in politics, religion and nation building without conflicting interest.
  • Laying out strategies for a nation with balanced development.
  • Prosecuting the corrupt so as to serve as an example to others.
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