Kenya Certificate Of Secondary Education (KCSE 2009) English Paper 2

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  1. Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

    In the eighteenth century, the field of science was virtually closed to women. In France, the countess wrote a highly regarded book about Newtonian physics, but its execellence spoke against her. The manuscript was so good that it was widely assumed that it had been written by the countess's tutor rather than the countess herself. Sadly enough, the tutor Samuel Konig, did nothing to discourage that the book's authorship. Instead, he took full credit for the countess's efforts. In England, the leading nation in science, the situation was worse. Women were strictly prohibited from admission to scientific societies. Ineed, the English denied women access to all forms of scientific study.

    Italy, however, was something of an exeption to the general European rule, and  a number of provincial scientific societies did admit women. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that the woman who crashed the barriers erected against her gender was an Italian, Laura Bassi (1711 - 1778). Bassi actually became  a respected scientific figure at a time women were generally thought to be too intellectually limited for the rigors of scientific study. By all accounts, she thoroughly disproved the sexist notion that women and sciences were opposed to one another.

    Bassi was one of the lucky women of her era. Her father was an enlightened lawyer in Bologna, Italy, who believed that women should be educated. Thus, young laura was schooled by the family physician, Gactano Tacconi. By the age of twenty she was familiar with the specific concepts of the times, particularly Newtonian physics. Because her father encouraged her to display her erudition at social gatherings, Bassi's reputation as a learned woman grew. Tested by a group of professors and scholars anxious to prove that a woman could not possibly be so clever, Bassi astonished the skeptics with her intelligence, learning and eloquence. Local scholars were so impressed that in 1731 they invited her to join the Bologna Institure of Sciences and to study for a degree at the University of Bologna. On May 12, 1732, Bassi became only the second woman to ever gain an academic degree. A few months later, she became the world's first female professor.

    But despite her breakthrough, those incharge of the University of Bologna had very rigid ideas about what Bassi could or could not do as a professor. For example, she had no say over her schedule. To the University's leaders, she was an intriguing oddity. They might trot her out for display to curious visiting scholars, but they would not let her lecture on a regular basis. Nor, for that matter, could she persue her own studies or research. Still, Bassi was not an easy woman to control, and to a degree she managed to go to her own way.

    In 1749, to escape university restrictions, Bassi began offering private lessons in experimental physics. She also began championing Newtonian physics at a time when it was relatively unknown in Italy, and she promoted Newton's findings about gravity even in the face of widespread intellectual resistance. In addition, Bassi corresponded with the leading physicists of the day. Thus, she kept a country abreast of new scientific theories.

    In 1776, when Bassi was sixty- five, the university acknowledged her contributions to scientific thought bestowing upon her an unheard of honour for a woman: She was appointed chair of experimental physics and her husband, the father of her eight children, was appointed her assistant.

    Contrary to expectation, Bassi's achievements did not pave the way for other women. This is because many of her male colleagues had been disturbed by her extraordinary progress and were reluctant to let any other female follow in her footsteps. After Bassi's death is 1778, it took more than a century, and the arrival of Marie Curie, for another woman to find herself at home in the male- dominated world of science.
    (Adapted from Reading for Results by Laraine Flemming (2008) New York: Houghton Mifflin.)
    1. Why was it widely assumed that the countess's tutor had written the book on Newtonian Physics? (2 marks)
    2. In what ways were France better than England in the treatment of women interest in the sciences? (3 marks)
    3. Rewrite the following sentence using the word "surprisingly". (1 mark)
      It's perhaps not surprising, then, that one woman who crushed the barriers erected aginst her gender was an Italian, Laura Bassi.
    4. According to the passage, what was the professor expected to do? (3 marks)
    5. For what selfish purpose did the University of Bologna use Bassi? (2 marks)
    6. What evidence is given to show that Bassi was difficult to control? (3 marks)
    7. Why do you think the author mentions the fact that Bassi had eight children? (3 marks)
    8. Explain the meaning of the following expressions as used in the passage. (3 marks)
      erudition ..............................................................................................
      to a degree .........................................................................................
      find herself at home .............................................................................

  2. Read the excerpt below and answer the questions that follow:
    DR. STOCKMANN:            No, no; I am impatient, as you can understand. I shall not know a moment's piece of mind until I see it in print.
    HOVSTAD:                       Hm!- It will take a good yet. Won't it Aslaksen?
    ALSAKSEN:                      Yes, I am afraid it will.
    DR. STOCKMANN:            All right, my dear fellows; I will come back.
                                         I do not mind coming twice if necessary. A matter of such great importance- the welfare of the town was at stake- it is no time to shirk trouble. (About to go, bus stops and
                                        comes back
    .) Look here - there is one more thing I want to talk to you about.
    HOVSTAD:                       Excuse me, but could it not wait for some other time?
    DR. STOCKMANN:            I can tell you in a half a dozen words. It is only this. When people read my article tomorrow and realize that I have been quietly been working the whole winter for the
                                         welfare of the town...
    HOVSTAD:                       Yes, but doctor ...
    DR. STOCKMANN:            I know what you are going to say. You don't see how on earth it was any more than my duty - my simple duty as a citizen. Of course it wasn't; I know that as well as you do. But my fellow citizens, you know ....! Good Lord, think of all the good souls who think  so highly of me ....!
    ASLAKSEN:                     Yes, our town folk have had a very high opinon of you up to now doctor.
    DR. STOCKMANN:            Yes, and that is just what I am afraid they ... Well, this is the point; when this reaches them especially the poorer classes; they take it like a summons to take the towns affairs into their own hands for the future...
    HOVSTAD:                       Hm! Doctor, I won't conceal from you the fact ...
    (getting up)
    DR STOCKMANN:             Ah! I  knew there was something in the wind! But I won't hear a word of it. If anything of that sort is being organized.
    HOVSTAD:                       Of what sort?
    DR. STOCKMANN:            Well, whatever it is - whether it is a demonstration in my honour or a banquet, or a subscription list for some presentation to me -whatever it is, you must promise me solemnly and faithfully to put a stop to it. You too, Mr. Aslakesen: do you understand.
    HOVSTAD:                       Excuse me Doctor, but sooner or later you've got to hear the plain truth.

    1. Where is this dialogue taking place? (2 marks)
    2. What is it that Dr. stockmann wants to see in print? And what are its contents?  (3 marks)
    3. How are Hovstad's and Aslaksen's jobs related to Dr. Stockmann's concerns?  (2 marks)
    4. What new information do Hovstad and Aslaksen has that have changed their attitude towards Dr. Stockmann? (4 marks)
    5. What does the dialogue reveal about the character of Dr. Stockmann? (5 marks)
    6. Dr. Staockmann's last speech in this excerpt proves ironic in the light of what happens later in the play. Explain the irony. (4 marks)
    7. What "plain truth" is Hovsatd referring to? (2 marks)
    8. Hovstad's last speech in this exerpt is interupted. State who interrupts him and why. (3 marks)

  3. Read the story below and then answer the questions that follow;

    Hare,the cleverest and funniest of animals, was once on good terms with the Elephant and the Hippo. He knew very well that he was weaker than his mighty friends, yet oddly enough he was always seeking ways of showing that he was, infact, much stronger than they.

    While drinking at the lakeshore one day, he met Hippo, "How are you brother, you big - for - nothing brute?" He began. "I've been waiting for so long to prove how much stronger than you I am. It's  time you recognized your betters and give me the respect I deserve."

    "What!" Hippo retorted, unable to believe his ears, "do you really dare to address me like that, you worthless little creature? Have you forgotten I'm the biggest and strongest of all water creatures?"
    Hare's reply was deliciously cool. "You may well be," he said, "but I' m the strongest of all the animals wherever they live; and from now on be sure you remember it. If you want to see how weak you are let's meet here in three days time and try a little tug-of-war. I promise you I' ll haul you clean out of the lake into the forest." Such imprudence infuriated Hippo.

    "Stop this idle prattle!" he retorted. "Go at home and eat for a few years. You' ll need to before you start dreaming of pulling me from the lake.

    And so they parted. Now as it happened, Hare, has yet, had no idea how he could outwit Hippo. He spent the remainder of the day deep in thought. By late afternoon the rather obvious idea of tying one end of a rope to a tree trunk was taking root in his mind when suddenly his friend elephant appeared. His mind raced like the wind. "Hello you long eared oaf!" He shouted. "Why on earth you keep swinging your snout like that?"

    Elephant was not amused. He replied rather hurt tones. "Whats wrong with you today, Hare?" he asked. "Have you taken leave of your senses? You sound like someone who's never slept a night in his grandfather's house. Have you forgotten how to respect your elders?"

    Hare pretended that he had. "Stump-footed fool!" He roared. "Don't talk such nonsense. It's you who should recognize your betters and one day I' ll teach you how."

  4. Elephant was growing weary. "Look I' am busy today," he said. "run along and find a child to play with - someone like yourself."

    Hare now pushed out his tiny chest, quite swollen with self confidence."All right," he shouted, "I'll offer you challenge. Come here in three days and I,ll prove I'm stronger than you by dragging that great carcass of yours out of the forest into the lake" And without more ado, he turned on his heels and bounced off into the forest.

    Three  days later, hare took the longest rope he could find and ran to the shore to find Hippo. He gave his friend one end, saying, "Here, catch this and hold tight. Do nothing until you hear a horn blowing then pull as hard as you can." Taking the rope, Hippo sank back complacently into the water, his big eyes twinkling merrily on the surface of the lake. The rope's other end Hare carried to Elephant who reliable and punctual as ever was waiting in the forest. Raising his voice to his huge friend, hare shouted , Hold this and and stay put. Don't pull until you hear a horn blowing. Now I'm off to drag you into the lake."

    And away he sped , hiding himself in a clump of bushes where he enjoyed a clear view of both animals. In the forest, elephant waited patiently; in the lake Hippo smiled to himself, convinced in his heart that it was all part of a bad joke. Hare now blew his horn, and with a crashing of trees and a wild cascading of water, the colossal beasts began their tug-of-war. Hour upon hour the struggle went on, forest and shore echoing to the noise of their furious grunting and trumpeting. At last, seeing his friends reduced to complete exhaustion, Hare again blew the horn and told them to stop.
    Then quickly rolling in the dust, he ran down to the shore and adressed himself to Hippo. "Brother," he began. "I hope now you realize your mistake. You see am not only clever but remarkly strong as well. From now on perhaps you'll respect me." They shook hands and parted, Hare leaving his friend to go to Elephant. "Well you wouldn't believe me," he said, speaking boldly to elephant, "Now you've learnt your lesson. You may be as big as a mountain, but basically you are a weakling." Puzzled and dumbfounded, Elephant shook his head, and after reluctantly shaking hands, lumbered away into the forest.
    (From Keep My Words by Onyango Ogutu amf A.A Roscoe) EAEP Ltd.
    1. From the first paragraph how can we tell that Hare was not contented with his state ? (2 marks)
    2. Why is it ironical that Hare is asking to be respected? (2 marks)
    3. From the information in paragraph 5, explain what Hippo's attitude towards Hare is. (3 marks)
    4. Rewrite the following sentence in your own words:
      "Now as it happened, Hare, as yet, had no idea how he would outwit Hippo" (1 mark)
    5. In about forty words, summarize Elephant's feelings about Hare (6 marks)
    6. Both Hippo and Elephant do as what Hare says. What does this prove? (3 marks)
    7. Explain the meaning of the following expressions as they are used in the story:
      1. imprudence (1 mark)
      2. Taking root (1 mark)
      3. Lumbered (1 mark)

    1. Identify, underline and correct the four words that have been mis-spelt in the paragraph below. (4 marks)
      We didn't give him the privilege of representing us on the District Environmental committee because he has a tendancy of disagreeing with everyone . He embarrasses himself by pretending to be so knowledgeable.
    2. Rewrite the following sentences as instructed . (3 marks)
      1. She realized that she had made such a seroius blunder.
        (Rewrite using "what")
      2. Just in case you change your mind, call this number.
        (begin: Should...)
      3. I don't know either of them.
        (End... to me)

    3. Fill in the blank spaces with the correct preposition. (4 marks)
      1. Nyawira, get .......the wet wall immediately!
      2. My sisters and I will share this piece of land ........ ourselves.
      3. We wondered if there was need .......such equipment.
      4. Mwela dipped the bucket........the well.

    4. Use the correct form of the nouns given in brackets. (4 marks)
      1. These ............(student) phones are confiscated.
      2. There are many ......(hero) who fought for our independence.
      3. How many .........(editor-in-chief) were invited?
      4. This must be your........(father-in-law) car.
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