# KCSE 2012 Geography Paper 1 with Marking Scheme

SECTION A
Answer all questions in this section.

1.
1. What is the relationship between Geography and Mathematics? (2 marks)
2. State four reasons why it is important to study Geography. (4 marks)

2.
1. Name two layers of discontinuity that are part of the interior structure of the earth. (2 marks)
2. State three characteristics of the outer core in the interior structure of the earth.

3.
1. Name two forms of precipitation that commonly occur in Kenya. (2 marks)
2. What is a Stevensons screen? (2 marks)

4.
1. Identify two causes of earth movement. (2 marks).
2. The diagram below shows some features formed as a result of faulting.

Identify:
1. The angle marked J. (1 mark)
2. the features marked K and L. (2 marks)
5.
1. Identify two sources of water found in a lake. (2 marks)
2. Give three characteristics of lakes formed due to faulting. (3 marks)

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two questions in this section.

1. Study the map of Kitale 1:50,000 sheet (75/3) provided and answer the following questions.
1.
1. Identify the two human made features found at the grid square 2320. (2 marks)
2. What is the altitude of the highest point in the area covered by the map? (2 marks)
3. Give three types of natural vegetation found in the area covered by the map. (3 marks
2.
1. What is the bearing of the Air Photo Principal Point at grid square 3426 from the Air Photo point at grid square 2931? (2 marks)
2. Measure the distance of the dry weather road (C 640) from the junction at point M (345142) to the junction at point N (416201). Give your answer in kilometers. (2 marks)
3.
1. Using a scale of 1 cm to represent 40 metres, draw a cross section from grid reference 410180 to the grid reference 500180. (4 marks)
2. On the cross-section, mark and name the following;
• A dry weather road; (1 mark)
• River Kaptarit; (1 mark)
• A ridge. (1 mark)
3. Calculate the vertical exaggeration (VE) of the section. (2 marks)
4. Citing evidence irons the map, identify five social services offered in Kitale Municipality.
2.
1.
1. What is a mineral?(2 marks)
2. Describe the following characteristics of minerals:
1. Lustre; (2 marks)
2. Colour; (2 marks)
3. Density. (2 marks)
2.
1. Name two examples of extrusive igneous rocks. (2 marks)
2. Describe three ways in which sedimentary rocks are formed. (9 marks)
3. Explain the significance of rocks to the economy of Kenya under the following subheadings;
1. tourism; (2 marks)
2. energy; (2 marks)
3. water. (2 marks)
3.
1. Explain the following processes of weathering;
1. Hydration; (2 marks)
2. Oxidation; (2 marks)
3. Frost action. (3 marks)
2. Describe how an exfoliation dome is formed. (6 marks)
3. Explain three physical factors that enhance movement of materials along a slope due to gravity. (6 marks)
4.
1. Give two processes of rapid mass movement. (2 marks)
2. State four indicators of occurrence of soil creep in an area. (4 marks)
4.
1.
1. Outline two factors that influence the development of drainage patterns. (2 marks)
2. Outline five characteristics of the river in its youthful stage. (5 marks)
2. Describe the following processes of river erosion:
1. attrition; (2 marks)
2. corrasion; (4marks)
3. Explain three negative effects of the rivers to human environment. (3 marks)
4. Your class is planning to carry out a field study of a river in its old stage. (3 marks)
1. State three reasons why it would be necessary to pre-visit the area of study. (3 marks)
2. State three activities you would carry out to determine why deposition occurs at this stage
5.
1.
1. Define the term soil  (2 marks)
2. Give two factors that determine soil leaching.  (2 marks)
2. Explain how the following factors influence soil formation:
1. parent rock;  (4 marks)
2. biotic factors;  (4 marks)
3.
1. State three characteristics of desert soils.   (3 marks)
2. Give two economic uses of soils.  (2 marks)
4. You are supposed to carry out a field study of an eroded area.
1. What information would you collect through observation that would indicate that the area is severly eroded?  (2 marks)
2. Identify three methods you would use to record the observations.  (3 marks)
3. State three recommendations you sould give to contro; soil erosion. (3 marks)

## MARKING SCHEME

1.
1. The relationship between Geography and Mathematics?
• Mathematics principles/formulae are used in Geography to calculate distance/area/ population density.
• Geography information can be analysed / presented accurately through the application of mathematical techniques.
• Geographical concepts are applied in calculating direction /bearing in mathematics
2. State four reasons why it is important to study Geography.
• It helps to develop skills.
• It enables learners to understand/appreciate different environmental influences.
• It encourages international awareness/co-operation.
• It helps learners to appreciate important social values.
• It promotes positive attitudes towards protection/ of resources.
• It leads to development of career opportunities
• It helps learners to manage time properly
• It enables learners to explain the origin and formation of the earth and the landforms.
2.
1. Name the two layers, of discontinuity that make up the interior structure of the earth. 2x1=2 marks
• mohorovicic/moho/mohor
• Gutenburg
2. State three characteristics of the outer core in the interior structure of the earth.
• outer core is composed of molten rock material .
• it is made up of iron and nickel
• it is estimated to be about 2100km to 2890km thick.
• it has temperatures ranging from 3700°C to 5000°C
• it has an average density of 10.0gm/cc to I2/3gm/cc.
Any first 3x1
3.
1. Name two forms of precipitation that commonly occur in Kenya.
• rain.
• hail.
• dew.
• fog/mist.
2. What is a Stevensons screen?
• It is a white wooden box in which meteorological instruments are kept at a weather station.
(2 marks)
4.
1. Identify two causes of earth movement.
• magma movement within the crust.
• gravitational pull/ gravitative pressure
• Convectional currents in the mantle.
any 2 x 1-2 marks
2. Identify-
1. the angle marked J
2. the features marked.
• K- tilt block.
• L - fault scarp /escarpment.
5.
1. Identify two sources of water found in a lake.
• rainwater;
• rivers;
• underground water;
• glacial melt waters.
2. Give three characteristics of lakes formed due to faulting.
• most are narrow;
• most are steep-sided; ,
• most are deep;
• most of them are salty;
• most of them are long.
Any 1st 3 x 1
6.  Study the map of Kitale 1:50,000 (sheet 75/3) provided and answer the following questions.
1.
1. identify two human made features found at the grid square 2320.
• bridge/me call's bridge.
• All weather road loose surface. 2x1=2 marks
2. What is the altitude of the highest point in the area covered by the map?
• 2362 metres.
3. Give three types of natural vegetation found in the area covered by the map
• forest
• scrub
• woodland
• scattered trees
• riverine trees
• papyrus vegetation
• thickets
any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
2.
1. What is the bearing of the Air Photo Principal Point at gridsquare 3426 from the air photo principal point at gridsquare 2931?
• 132° (131-133) (2 marks)
2. Measure the distance of the dry weather road (C640) from the junction at point M (345142) to the junction at point N (416201). Give your answer in kilometres.
12.1km ± 0.1 (12.0-12.2) (2 marks)
3.
1. Using a scale of 1cm to represent 40 metres, draw a cross-section from grid reference 410180 to grid reference 500180.
2. On the cross-section mark and name the following:
• A dry weather road.
• River Kaptarit
• A ridge. (3 x 1 marks)
3. Calculate the vertical exaggeration (VE) of the section.
VE = VS/HS
VE =   1   ÷    1
4000    50000
=  1   × 50000
4000     1
=12½ or 12.5
4. Citing evidence irons the map, identify five social services offered in Kitale Municipality.
 Services Evidence Health/medical Recreational servicesReligious services Security ServicesHousingWater supplyBurial services Presence of hospital Sports club/KitaJe Club/Golf Course  Church Police station/D.C Office Built-up areas/huts Water tower/tank Cemetry
5 x 1 (5 marks)
7.
1.
1. What is a mineral?
• Mineral is an inorganic substance with a definite chemical composition at/ beneath the surface of the earth /a solid inorganic substance occurring naturally  (2 marks)
2. Describe the following characteristics of minerals.
1. Lustre - minerals differ in their brightness depending on the nature of their reflective surfaces  Smooth surfaces are shiny whereas rough surfaces are dull
2. Colour - different minerals display different colours. (Minerals that have iron / magnesium have dark colours/
(2-marks)
3. Density - minerals have different Weight per unit volume of waterminerals have different specific gravity/some minerals are heavier while others are light
(2 marks)
2.
1. Name two examples of extrusive igneous rocks.
• Basalt
• Rhyolite
• tefra
• Pumice
• obsidian
• phonolites
• Tuff
• Andesite
• Trachyte
• Scoria
any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
2. Describe three ways in which sedimentary rocks are formed.
• Mechanically formed sedimentary rocks - rock fragments are transported by wind/water/ice They are deposited in layers. Over a long period of time, they are compacted into a hard rock?
• Organically formed sedimentary rocks - remains of plants/animals are deposited in layers. Over a long period of time, the remains are compacted forming a hard rock.
• Chemically formed sedimentary rocks - dissolved minerals are transported into water bodies They are then precipitates /evaporates over a long Period ; time, the precipitates/evaporites are then compacted to form a hard rock .
3 x 1 = 3 marks
3. Explain the significance of rocks to the economy of Kenya under the following:
1. Tourism: Some rocks form unique features that attract tourists earning the country foreign exchange/income. (2 marks)
2. Energy: Some sedimentary rocks contains fossils fuels which are sources of energy for domestic/industrial use (2 marks)
3. Water: Some rocks act as storage for water which Can be supplied for domestic / industrial / agricultural use.  (2 marks)
8.
1. Explain the following processes of weathering:
1. Hydration: In hydration certain rock minerals absorb water thus expanding this causes internal stress in the rock and it eventually disintegrates.
2. Oxidation :takes place in rocks that contain iron. The iron combines with oxygen forming iron oxides Such rocks change colour and crumble easily.
3. Frost action
• In temperate/high mountain areas, water may occupy cracks in the rocks during the day.
• At night the temperatures drop below freezing point causing the water to freeze and expand.
• This is alternate freeze-thaw action weakens the rock causing it to disintegrate.
( 3 marks)
2. Describe how an exfoliation dome is formed.
• In arid/semi and areas, there is large diurnal ranges of temperature.
• During the day, a homogenous rock, intensely heated/at night the rock looses heat rapidly.
• The differential heating causes the outer layer to expand/contract faster than the inner layer.
• When this expansion and contraction takes place repeatedly, stress develops in the outer layer of rocks. Cracks appear on the surface layer.
• Eventually, the outer layer peels off .
• The peeling off leaves behind a rounded mass of rock known as exfoliation dome.
any 6x1=6 marks
3. Explain three physical factors that enhance movement of materials along a slope due to gravity.
1. Nature of materials
• Heavy and large materials move faster on a slope as they are more likely to be overcome by gravity/thinly bedded layers have a tendency to move faster.
2. Angle of slope
• The steeper the slope, the faster the rate of movement/where rocks are dipping steeply, movement is faster.
3. Climatic factors/amount of water.
• The more saturated the rock/soil materials is, the more likely it is to move as water adds weight and lubricates/alternate freezing and thawing encourages movement.
4. Vegetation cover
• Bare surfaces are more likely to experience mass wasting because there is no vegetation to bind the materials together
5. Earth movements.
• Earthquakes/volcanic eruptions/isostatic adjustments cause vibrations which may trigger widespread movement of weathered rock materials
any 3 x 2 = 6 marks
4.
1. Give two processes, of rapid mass movement.
• landslides/slumping/rockslide/rckfall/debris slide/debris fall/avalanche
• mudslides/mudflow
• earthflows/ eathslides
any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
2. State four indicators of occurrence of soil creep in an area.
• Telephone/fence poles that are inclined down a slope/bent tree trunks.
• Accumulated soil at the foot of a slope/behind obstacles such as walls/on roads/railways
• Existence of bare rock/exposed upper slope.
• Presence of a ribbed/stepped pattern across the slope.
• Presence of dipped rock strata in the direction of the slope.
• presence of overhanging banks above roads/rivers.
• presence of a slope retreat
any 4 x 1 = 4 marks
9.
1.
1. Outline two factors that influence the development of drainage patterns.
• Direction of the slope of the land.
• Difference in rock resistance /hardness.
• The arrangement of rock layers/rock structure
• Faulting/fault guided
any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
2. Outline five characteristics of a river in its youthful stage.
• the river has a steep river gradient.
• the river channel is narrow.
• the river has deep/steep-sided/V-shaped valley
• the river flows at a high speed/high stream velocity.
• the vertical erosion/down cutting is dorminant.
• the river channel is generally winding
• Erosional features are common rapids/waterfalls/cataracts/cascades/ interlocking spurs/potholes/ plunge pools/
• the type of flow is torrential.
• the river has a small load
• the river has a small volume of water
any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
2. Describe the following processes of river erosion.
1. Attrition: As rock materials are transported downstream, they constantly collide against each other.
The materials gradually wear down/reduce in sizes
2. Corrasion : As solid rock materials are transported downstream, they are hurled against the banks and draped along the river bed.
The rock materials scour/erode/chip offf pieces of rock from the channel and the river bed.
The rock materials scour/smoothen/grind the river bank/bed
Eddy currents rotate pieces of rock around the hollows breaking/ grinding the river bed.
(4 marks)
3. Explain three negative effects of rivers to the human environment.
• When rivers flood, they destroy a lot of property/crops lead to loss of human life.
• Wide/deep rivers are a barrier to transport especially where bridges have not been constructed.
• River water can be a medium of spreading water-born diseases, since flood waters may spread chemicals from farms/human waste which contaminates sources of water
• Some rivers are habitat to dangerous animals which may attack human beings/destroy crops.
any 3 x 2 = 6 marks
4.  Your class is planning to carry out a field study of a river in its old stage,
1. State three reasons why it would be necessary to pre-visit the area of study.
• It helps to draw up objectives/hypothesis for the study
• It helps to prepare a route map.
• it helps to design a working schedule.
• it helps to identify the probable problems/how to solve problems.
• it helps to asses the suitability of the study area.
• it helps to estiomate the cost of the study.
• it helps to identify siutable methods of collecting data.
• it helps to identify appropriate equipment to be used during the study.
any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
2. State three activities you would carry out to determine why deposition occurs at this stage.
• Measuring of gradient
• Finding out the nature of the load.
• Finding out the amount of the load.
• Establishing the velocity of the river.
• Observing obstacles in the stream channel/distributaries.
• Measuring of the width of the river.
any 3x1=3 marks
10.
1.
1. Define the term soil.
• It is a naturally occurring thin layer of loose/unconsolidated materials which , overlies the crustal rocks and on which plants grow/It is an accumulation of rock particles/minerals, organic matter, water and air found on the surface of the earth.
(2mark)
2. Give two factors that determine soil leaching?
• nature of soil/solubility of minerals.
• amount of rainfall
• nature of the slope
any 2x1=2 marks
2. Explain how the following factors influence soil formation.
1. Parent rock
• The nature of rock influences the rate of weathering in that soft rock weather hard rock are resistant and weather slowly.
• The parent rock determines the soil texture in that large/coarse grained rocks produce   large/coarse grained soils.
• The type of minerals in the parent rock are transferred to the soil during formation.
any 2x2 = 4 marks
2. Biotic factors
• Micro organisms in the soil assist in plant/animal decay to form humus.
• The micro organisms mix and aerate the soils
• The roots of plants, penetrate the soil enabling it to become porous.
• ploughing/digging break up soil structure into small particles.
• when plants and animals die, they decay to form humus/organic matter in the soil.
any 2x2 = 4 marks
3.
1. state three characteristics of desert soils
• The soils contain little of no humus.
• the soil are of sandy/stony texture.
• the soils are saline/contains a lot of salts/high lime content.
• the soils lack moisture.
• the soils may be light colored.
• the soils are thin/shallow
• the soils are lightly porous.
any 3x1 = 3 marks
2. Give two economic uses of soil.
• It is used as raw material in industry/pottery/ glass making/ brick making.
• Soils support agriculture/development of forestry.
• Some soils contain valuable minerals.
• some soils have medicinal value./are foo
• it is used in building/construction
any 2x1 = 2 marks
4. You are supposed to carry out a field study of an eroded area.
1. What information would you collect through observation that would indicate that the area is severely eroded?
• rills/gullies/deep trenches
• uneven surface.
• lack of or little vegetation.
• little/absence of topsoil/thin soils
• exposed plant roots.
any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
2. Identify three methods you would use to record the observations.
• photograph taking
• video recording.
• note taking.
• field sketching.
• tabulation.
any 3x1 = 3 marks
3. State three recommendations you would give to control soil erosion.
• construction of gabions.
• construction of check dams.
• afforestation/reafforestation.
• filling in the gullies.
• construction of drainage trenches.
• practising approriate methods of farming/ planting cover crops.
any 3 x 1=3 marks

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