AGRICULTURE MARKING SCHEME - Form 1 End of Term 1 2019 Examinations

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    1. Importance of agriculture to kenya’s economy
      • Source of food
      • Source of employment
      • Provision of foreign exchange
      • Source of raw materials for industry
      • Provision of market for industrial goods
      • Source of money or capital   6x1= 6mks
    2. Agriculture as an art entails
      • Tilling of the land
      • Construction of farm structures
      • Measuring distance
      • Harvesting of crops
      • Feeding and handling animals
      • Marketing of agricultural produce   2x1 = 2mks
    3. Agriculture is defined as the art and science of crop and livestock production. 1x2 = 2mks
    1.  Branches of agriculture
      • Crop production
      • Livestock production
      • Soil science
      • Agricultural economics and engineering 4 x ½ = 2mks
    2. Factors determining the system of farming
      • Resources available
      • Skills and knowledge of the farmer
      • Environmental factors
      • Government policy
      • Farmer’s choice and preference
      • Enterprise requirement and enterprise itself.   4x1 = 4mks
    1. Characteristic of shifting cultivation
      • It requires abundance of arable land for farming
      • Limited capital investment/simple hand tools are commonly used.
      • There is poor land management leading to low agriculture output.
      • It is mostly practiced where there is no individual land ownership   3x1= 3mks
      1. Floriculutre-is the growing of vegetable
        Pomoculture – is the growing of fruits       2x1 = 2mks
      2. Horticultural crop- these are perishable crops which have gained a lot of popularity in Kenya in recent years.
        Olericulture- this is the growing of vegetables e.g French beans.   2x1 = 2mks
      3. Aquaculuture- is the rearing of fish in a fish pond.
        Apiculture- is the rearing of bees in structures.     2x1 = 2mks
      4. Agricultural engineering- this a branch of agriculture dealing with the use and maintenance of farm tools, machinery and structure 
        Agricultural economics- this is a branch of agriculture which deals with the utilization of scarce resources.   2x1 = 2mks
    1. Problems facing Agriculture production
      • Poor tools and equipment
      • PCH and diescates
      • AriditY
      • Land tenure
      • Fluctuation of commodity prices
      • Poor storage
      • Poor infrastructure.
    2. Ways in which Agriculture contributes to industrial development. 
      • Provides raw materials to agro-based industries 
      • provides a market for industrial good
      • acts as a source of capital
      • acts as a source of foreign exchange. 4 x ½ = 2mks
    3. Soil Constituents
      • air
      • wate
      • organic matter
      • living things
      • mineral elements.   5x1= 5mkS
    1. Organic Farming
      • This is the growing of crops and rearing of animals without using agricultural chemicals.
    2. Importance of organic farming
      • its environmental friendly
      • It is cheap
      • Improves the soil structure
      • Improves the water-holdings capacity.
      • Crop products are free from contamination.   3x1 = 3mks
    • Practices that can facilitate achievement of organic farming
      • Crop Rotation
      • Mulching
      • Cover cropping
      • Observing a close season. 3x1 = 3mks
    • Effects of high temperature on crop production.
      • Improves the quality of some crop products
      • High level of microbial activity
      • Increases biochemical within a plant hence improves growth rate.
      • Improves chemical reaction in the soil. 4x1/2=2mks
    • Why ranching is regarded as a form of advanced pastoral-nomadism.
      • water is provided aft specific watering points.
      • Animals are confined through fencing mating is controlled
      • There is supplementary feeding
      • Control of parasite and diseases is done.
      • There is controlled grazing, thus minimizing erosions. 6x ½ = 3mks
    • DifferenCe between Extensive and intensive farming
      • Intensive farming this system utilized the factors of production to the maximum and involves high level of management.
      • Extensive farming . Is a system where a large piece of land with low investment of resources per unit area is carried out   1x2= 2mks
    1. Agro-forestry
      • This is the method of growing crops and certain tree of animals on the same piece of land. 2x1= 2mks
    2. Advantages of Agro-forestry
      • The tree provides a good ground cover thus reducing soil erosion by minimizing the impact of rain drops .
      • Tree, roots bind soil particles together providing resistance to erosion.
      • Some trees like calliandra spp and luceancca spp act as livestock fodder.
      • The trees one used as sources of fuel and building material.
      • Legmminolous tree e.g help in the fixation of nitrogen in the soil   4 x ½ = 2
    3. Why mixed farming can be termed as a method of diversification
      • Because more than one enterprise i.e. livestock and crops are produced.     1x1 = 1mk
    • Advantages of shifting cultivation. 
      • Reduces the build up of pests and diseases.
      • No purchase of pesticides and fertilizer hence reduced production cost.
      • Helps to reduce land disputes
      • Helps to control parasitic weeds
      • Plants benefits from readily available. 4x 1/2 = 2mks
    • Characteristic of Extensive farming
      • Large scale farms
      • Low capital investment
      • Low labour per unit area
      • Low yields per unit area.   3x1= 3mks
    • Two Latin words from where the term “Agriculture” is derived 
      • Agene – which means field
      • cullrira – which means cullivation. 2x1= 2mks
    1. Effects of HIV/AIDS on agriculture. 
      • Shortage of farm labour
      • Loss of family support
      • Low living standards leading to despondency and hopelessness.
      • More time spent by the Government and NGO’s in carrying for the sick. 2x1=2
    2. Importance of soil to plants.
      • Contains the nutrients and water required for plants.
      • Provides a good habitat to useful soil organisms.
      • Provides a good habital to useful soil organism
      • Provide support/anchorage to plants contains organic matter that acts as food for useful soil organisms. 2x1= 2mks
    3. Human factors that influence agriculture
      • Level of education and technology
      • Health and HIV/AIDs
      • Economy
      • Government policy
      • Cultural practices and religious beliefs
      • Market force.   6x1= 6mks
    1. Disadvantages of pastoral nomadism system of farming 
      • It encourages the spread of livestock pest and diseases
      • There is a tendency to increased soil erosion and land degradation.
      • Difficult to control breeding and breeding diseases.
      • Low production of milk meat hides and skin.
      • High death rate as a result of walking for long distance. 2x1= 2mk
    2. Environmental factors that affect crop distribution in Kenya. 
      • Temperature/attribute
      • preventing winds
      • soil types
      • rainfall. 3x1 = 3
    3. Aspects of rainfall that affects agriculture
      • Rainfall intensity
      • reliability
      • distribution
      • amount       4x1=4
    1. Causes of hard pan in a crop yields
      • Ploughing at the same depth season after season.
      • Use of heavy machinery on wet soil.     2 x1=2
    2. Processes of rock weathering
      • Physical weathering
      • Biological         
      • Chemical                 2x1=2
    3. Aspects of light that influence crop growth
      • Light intensity
      • light wave length
      • light   duration   2 x ½ = 1


    1. Soil profile
      • A - Superficial layer
      • B - Top soil
      • C - Sub soil
      • D - Weathered rocks
      • E - Parent rock.       5x1=5mks
    2. Soil profile is the vertical arrangement of various soil layers or horizons. 1x2= 2mks
      • sub soil   1x1= 1mk
    3. Characteristics of top soil (B)
      • Has a dark colour due to the presence of humus.
      • Is rich in plant nutrients and well aerated
      • It is a zone of maximum leaching (zone of eluviation)   2x1= 2mks
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